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What are the pelvic floor muscles?

The floor of the pelvis is made up of layers of muscle and other tissues. These layers stretch like a hammock from the tailbone at the back, to the pubic bone in front.

A woman’s pelvic floor muscles support her bladder, womb (uterus) and bowel (colon). The urine tube (front passage), the vagina and the back passage all pass through the pelvic floor muscles. Your pelvic floor muscles help you to control your bladder and bowel. They also help sexual function. It is vital to keep your pelvic floor muscles strong.




Pelvic Floor MusclePelvic Floor Muscle

Why should i do pelvic floor muscle training?

Women of all ages need to have strong pelvic floor muscles.

Pelvic floor muscles can be made weaker by:

  • not keeping them active;
  • being pregnant and having babies;
  • constipation;
  • being overweight;
  • heavy lifting;
  • coughing that goes on for a long time (such as smoker’s cough, bronchitis or asthma); and
  • growing older.

Women with stress incontinence – that is, women who wet themselves when they cough, sneeze or are active – will find pelvic floor muscle training can help in getting over this problem.

For pregnant women, pelvic floor muscle training will help the body cope with the growing weight of the baby. Healthy, fit muscles before the baby is born will mend more easily after the birth.

After the birth of your baby, you should begin pelvic floor muscle training as soon as you can. Always try to “brace” your pelvic floor muscles (squeeze up and hold) each time before you cough, sneeze or lift the baby. This is called having “the knack”.

As women grow older, the pelvic floor muscles need to stay strong because hormone changes after menopause can affect bladder control. As well as this, the pelvic floor muscles change and may get weak. A pelvic floor muscle training plan can help to lessen the effects of menopause on pelvic support and bladder control.

Pelvic floor muscle training may also help women who have the urgent need to pass urine more often (called urge incontinence).




  • 沒有保持這些肌肉活躍;
  • 懷孕及生孩子;
  • 便秘;
  • 過度肥胖;
  • 提舉重物;
  • 長期持續性咳嗽(如吸煙者的咳嗽,患支氣管炎或哮喘);以及
  • 年紀越來越大。



你應該在產後儘快開始骨盆底肌肉鍛練。每次咳嗽,打噴嚏或抱嬰兒之前要總是儘量將你的骨盆底肌肉“繃緊”(向上收緊並持續下去)。這被稱為 “竅門”。



Where are my pelvic floor muscles?

The first thing to do is to find out which muscles you need to train.

  1. Sit or lie down with the muscles of your thighs, buttocks and stomach relaxed.
  2. Squeeze the ring of muscle around the back passage as if you are trying to stop passing wind. Now relax this muscle. Squeeze and let go a couple of times until you are sure you have found the right muscles. Try not to squeeze your buttocks.
  3. When sitting on the toilet to empty your bladder, try to stop the stream of urine, then start it again. Do this to learn which muscles are the right ones to use – but only once a week. Your bladder may not empty the way it should if you stop and start your stream more often than that.

If you don’t feel a distinct “squeeze and lift” of your pelvic floor muscles, or if you can’t slow your stream of urine as talked about in Point 3, ask for help from your doctor, physiotherapist, or continence nurse. They will help you to get your pelvic floor muscles working right.

Women with very weak pelvic floor muscles can benefit from pelvic floor muscle training.



  1. 坐下或躺下,放鬆大腿,臀部及腹部的肌肉。
  2. 收緊肛門周圍的環形肌肉,就像你正盡力忍着不排氣一樣。然後放鬆這塊肌肉。收緊及放鬆數次,直到確定你已經找到正確的肌肉為止。儘量不要收緊臀部。
  3. 坐在馬桶上小便時,試着中斷尿流,然後重新開始排尿。通過這樣做來瞭解該用哪些肌肉—但只能每星期做一次。如果中止後重新開始排尿超過一次,你的膀胱可能不會以應有的方式排空。



How do i do pelvic floor muscle training?

Now that you can feel the muscles working, you can:

  • Squeeze and draw in the muscles around your back passage and your vagina at the same time. Lift them UP inside. You should have a sense of “lift” each time you squeeze your pelvic floor muscles. Try to hold them strong and tight as you count to 8. Now, let them go and relax. You should have a distinct feeling of “letting go”.
  • Repeat “squeeze and lift” and let go. It is best to rest for about 8 seconds in between each lift up of the muscles. If you can’t hold for 8, just hold for as long as you can.
  • Repeat this “squeeze and lift” as many times as you can, up to a limit of 8 to 12 squeezes.
  • Try to do three sets of 8 to 12 squeezes each, with a rest in between.
  • Do this whole training plan (three sets of 8 to 12 squeezes) each day while lying down, sitting or standing.

While doing pelvic floor muscle training:

  • keep breathing;
  • only squeeze and lift;
  • do NOT tighten your buttocks; and
  • keep your thighs relaxed.



  • 同時收緊並向內收起肛門及陰道周圍的肌肉。將這些肌肉向內向上提。每次收緊骨盆底肌肉時,你應該有“提起”的感覺。儘量一邊用力保持收緊一邊數到8。然後放鬆這些肌肉並讓自己鬆弛下來。你應該有明顯的“放鬆”感覺。
  • 重覆“收緊及提起”然後放鬆。最好在每次提起肌肉之間休息8秒左右。如果你收緊不能堅持數到8,只需量力而為。
  • 儘量多次重覆這種“收緊及提起”鍛練,每組最多收緊8至12次。
  • 儘量做3組8至12次收緊,每組之間要休息。
  • 每天在躺下、坐下或站立時做完整套鍛練計劃(3組8至12次收緊)。


  • 保持正常呼吸;
  • 只收緊及提起;
  • 不要繃緊臀部;以及
  • 保持大腿放鬆。

Do your pelvic floor muscle training well

Fewer good squeezes are better than a lot of half hearted ones! If you are not sure that you are doing the squeezes right, or if you do not see a change in symptoms after 3 months, ask for help from your doctor, physiotherapist, or continence nurse.



Make the training part of your daily life

Once you have learnt how to do pelvic floor muscle squeezes, you should do them often. Every day is best. You should give each set of squeezes your full focus. Make a regular time to do your pelvic floor muscle squeezes. This might be after going to the toilet, when having a drink, or when lying in bed.

Other things you can do to help your pelvic floor muscles:

  • Use “the knack” - that is, always try to “brace” your pelvic floor muscles (by squeezing up and holding) each time before you cough, sneeze or lift anything.
  • Share the lifting of heavy loads.
  • Eat fruit and vegetables and drink 1.5 - 2 litres of fluid per day.
  • Don’t strain when using your bowels.
  • Ask your doctor about hay fever, asthma and bronchitis to ease sneezing and coughing.
  • Keep your weight within the right range for your height and age.




  • 使用“竅門”—也就是每次咳嗽,打噴嚏或提舉任何物品之前總是儘量將你的骨盆底肌肉“繃緊”(收緊肌肉並持續下去)。
  • 與別人一起提舉重物。
  • 每天吃水果和蔬菜,飲用1.5—2升液體。
  • 排大便時不要過度用力。
  • 向你的醫生查詢花粉症、哮喘及支氣管炎的治療,以緩解打噴嚏及咳嗽。
  • 保持你的體重處於符合你的身高及年齡的範圍內。

Seek help

Qualified nurses are available if you call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66* (Monday to Friday, between 8.00am to 8.00pm Australian Eastern Standard Time) for free:

  • Information;
  • Advice; and
  • Leaflets.

If you have difficulty speaking or understanding English you can access the Helpline through the free Telephone Interpreter Service on 13 14 50. The phone will be answered in English, so please name the language you speak and wait on the phone. You will be connected to an interpreter who speaks your language. Tell the interpreter you wish to call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66. Wait on the phone to be connected and the interpreter will assist you to speak with a continence nurse advisor. All calls are confidential.

* Calls from mobile telephones are charged at applicable rates.


如果你致電國家排便節制熱線,有資質的護士會接聽你的電話1800 33 00 66* (週一至週五,澳大利亞東部標準時間8:00am—8:00pm)。

  • 信息;
  • 建議;及
  • 資料單張。

如果你在講英語或者理解上有困難,你可以透過撥打13 14 50獲取免費電話傳譯服務以接通國家排便節制熱線。電話會用英語接通,因此請說明你要講的語言並且不要掛機。你會被連接到一個講你母語的傳譯員。告知傳譯員你想要致電國家排便節制熱線,電話是1800 33 00 66。待電話接通後傳譯員會幫助你與排便節制護理顧問對話,所有的來電均保密。

* 用手機打出會收取相應費用。


Last Updated: Wed 19, Jul 2023
Last Reviewed: Tue 17, Mar 2020