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Many women leak urine or wet themselves when they cough, sneeze or exercise (this is called stress incontinence). While there are many treatments to try first, some women need to have surgery for this problem.

很多女性在咳嗽,打喷嚏或做运动时会漏尿或尿湿裤子(称为压力性小便失禁)。虽然可以先试用很多治疗方法,但有些女性需要通过手术解决这个问题。

What Causes Bladder Control Problems?

Bladder control problems are mainly caused by damage to pelvic floor muscles and the tissues that support them.

The floor of the pelvis is made up of layers of muscle and other tissues. These layers stretch like a hammock around the bladder and vagina from the tailbone at the back to the pubic bone in front. The pelvic floor muscles do a number of things, such as:

  • help to close off the bladder, the vagina (front passage) and the rectum (back passage); and
  • help to hold the bladder, the uterus (womb) and bowel in their proper place.

You can find out more about the pelvic floor muscles in the leaflet ”One in Three Women Who Ever Had a Baby Wet Themselves”. Bladder control problems can start when the pelvic floor muscles are made weaker by:

  • not keeping the muscles active;
  • being pregnant and giving birth;
  • constipation;
  • being overweight;
  • heavy lifting;
  • coughing that goes on for a long time (such as smoker’s cough or asthma); or
  • growing older.

什么引致排尿控制失常?

排尿控制失常主要由骨盆底肌肉及支撑它们的组织的损伤所引致。

骨盆底由多层肌肉及其它组织组成。这些肌肉及组织像吊床一样,从背后的尾骨延伸至前面的耻骨,将膀胱及阴道夹在中间。骨盆底肌肉有多种作用,如:

  • 帮助关闭膀胱,阴道(阴道口)和直肠(肛门);及
  • 帮助将膀胱,子宫及直肠维持在适当位置。

你可从资料册“生过孩子的女性中会有三分之一的人小便失禁”中查阅更多关于骨盆底肌肉的信息。当骨盆底肌肉由于以下原因变弱时,就会出现排尿控制失常:

  • 肌肉缺乏运动;
  • 怀孕及生孩子;
  • 便秘;
  • 肥胖;
  • 提举重物;
  • 长期持续性咳嗽(如吸烟咳嗽或患哮喘);或
  • 进入老年。

How Can Bladder Control Problems Be Treated?

The good news is that most women can control their bladder better by making their pelvic floor muscles stronger through training. The leaflet “Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Women” tells you how. Your doctor, physiotherapist, or continence nurse advisor will also be able to help.

如何治疗排尿控制失常?

大多数女性可以通过锻炼加强骨盆底肌肉来更好地控制排尿,这一点很令人宽慰。资料册“女性骨盆底肌肉锻炼”告诉你如何进行锻炼。你的医生、理疗师或排便科护士也可以帮助你。

When Is Surgery Needed?

For a small number of women the more simple methods can fail to help with bladder control, and leaking urine can make day to day life difficult. In these cases surgery may be needed. Surgery should never be a first choice. All surgery has risks. You must discuss these risks with your surgeon.

在什么情况下需要做手术?

对于少数女性而言,许多较简单的方法可能无助于排尿控制,而漏尿会令日常生活变得困难。这类案例可能需要做手术。永远不要首选手术治疗。任何手术都有风险。你必须跟外科医生讨论这些风险。

What Should You Ask Your Surgeon?

Before agreeing to surgery, you should talk about it fully with your surgeon. Make a list of questions that you want to ask. These could cover:

  • why this type of surgery has been chosen for you;
  • how well will it work;
  • what are the details of the surgery;
  • what are the problems that could occur, both short and long term;
  • what sort of scar will be left, what sort of pain will you have;
  • how much time off work will you need to take;
  • how much will it cost; and
  • how long will the effects last?

你要向外科医生了解什么?

同意做手术之前,你应该跟你的外科医生进行详细的讨论。列出你想问的问题。问题可以包括:

  • 为什么替你选择这种手术;
  • 手术效果如何;
  • 手术具体步骤;
  • 在短期及长期内可能出现什么问题;
  • 会留下什么样的伤疤,疼痛情况如何;
  • 你需要休多长时间病假;
  • 需要多少费用;以及
  • 效果可持续多长时间?

Seek Help

Qualified nurses are available if you call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66* (Monday to Friday, between 8.00am to 8.00pm Australian Eastern Standard Time) for free:

  • Information;
  • Advice; and
  • Leaflets.

If you have difficulty speaking or understanding English you can access the Helpline through the free Telephone Interpreter Service on 13 14 50. The phone will be answered in English, so please name the language you speak and wait on the phone. You will be connected to an interpreter who speaks your language. Tell the interpreter you wish to call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66. Wait on the phone to be connected and the interpreter will assist you to speak with a continence nurse advisor. All calls are confidential.

Visit bladderbowel.gov.au or continence.org.au/other-languages

* Calls from mobile telephones are charged at applicable rates.

寻求帮助

如果你致电国家排便节制热线,有资质的护士会接听你的电话1800 33 00 66*(周一至周五,澳大利亚东部标准时间8:00am—8:00pm)。

  • 信息;
  • 建议;及
  • 资料册。

如果你在讲英语或者理解上有困难,你可以通过拨打13 14 50获取免费电话传译服务以接通国家排便节制热线。电话会用英语接通,因此请说明你要讲的语言并且不要挂机。你会被连接到一个讲你母语的传译员。告知传译员你想要致电国家排便节制热线,电话是1800 33 00 66。待电话接通后传译员会帮助你与排便节制护理顾问对话,所有的来电均保密。

请登陆: bladderbowel.gov.au 或者 continence.org.au/other-languages

* 用手机打出会收取相应费用。

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Last Updated: Fri 30, Jul 2021
Last Reviewed: Tue 17, Mar 2020