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Healthy Diet and Bowels

健康饮食与肠道

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Healthy diet and bowels

A healthy diet containing plenty of different fibre rich foods, lots of fluids as well as exercise is recommended to keep our bowels healthy and regular.

Fibre can help protect against diverticular disease, haemorrhoids, constipation and chronic diseases such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes, and can also help with controlling your weight.

健康饮食与肠道

要保持我们的肠道健康以及大便有规律,我们建议健康饮食,这包括摄取充足的各种高纤维食物、充足的液体还有进行体育锻炼。

纤维能帮助预防结肠憩室病、痔疮、便秘以及慢性疾病,比如心脏病和2 型糖尿病,还能帮助控制您的体重。



What is fibre?

Fibre is found only in foods that come from plants. This includes vegetables, fruits, beans (legumes), nuts, seeds and cereals (breakfast cereals, bread, pasta and rice).

纤维是什么?

纤维只存在于以植物为原料的食物。这包括蔬菜、水果、豆子(豆荚 类)、坚果、种子和麦片(早餐谷类食物、面包、意大利面和米饭)。

Specialised dietary advice may be required from a Dietitian for conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, faecal incontinence, gluten intolerance, and food sensitivities.

对于有些疾病比如肠易激综合征、肠炎、大便失禁、麦麸不耐症和食物过敏等,营养师可能会给出特殊的饮食建议。


 

The following foods are fibre rich

以下是富含高纤维的食物

Vegetables and fruits

Choose fresh, canned, frozen or dried such as sultanas, figs, prunes, and dates.

蔬菜和水果

选择新鲜、罐装、冷冻或者晒干的水果,比如葡萄干、无花果、西梅和 枣子。

Cereal foods - high fibre choices

  • High fibre breakfast cereals such as natural muesli, bran cereals and oat cereals
  • High fibre (wholemeal, wholegrain or grainy) bread, rolls, flat bread and crackers
  • Brown rice, wild rice or brown pasta
  • Grains such as barley, buckwheat, burghal, chia, corn, millet, oats, quinoa, rice, rye, semolina, sorghum, spelt and wheat

谷类食物 – 高纤维的选择

  • 高纤维早餐谷类食物,比如天然什锦麦片、全麦片和燕麦片
  • 高纤维(全麦、全谷物或添加谷物的)面包、小面包、面饼和饼干
  • 糙米、野生稻或全麦意大利面
  • 谷物,比如大麦、荞麦、碎小麦、奇亚籽、玉米、小米、燕麦、藜麦、米、黑麦、粗粒小麦粉、高粱、丝佩尔特小麦和小麦

Beans (legumes)

All beans and peas are fibre rich and examples include: black-eyed beans, borlotti beans, butter beans, cannelini beans, chick peas, haricot beans, kidney beans, lentils, lima beans, mung beans, soy beans and split peas. Foods made from these such as hummus are fibre rich.

豆子 (豆荚类)

所有的豆子和豌豆都富含纤维,比如黑眼豆、芸豆、棉豆、白豆、鸡心豆、四季豆、腰豆、小扁豆、利马豆、绿豆、黄豆和青豆。用这些食材做出的食物,比如鹰嘴豆泥,是富含高纤维的。

Nuts and seeds

All seeds such as flax, sunflower, sesame and poppy seeds, and all nuts such as almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts.

坚果和种子

所有的种子比如亚麻籽、葵花子、芝麻和罂粟籽等,以及所有坚果, 比如杏仁、腰果、榛子、夏威夷果、花生、松子、开心果以及核桃等。


 

How much fibre should I have?

我应该摄入多少纤维?

Aim for at least 25-30g of fibre each day. See the table below for the amount of fibre in different foods.

争取每天至少摄入25–30克纤维请查阅下面的表格了解不同食物的纤维含量。

 
HIGH FIBRE CHOICEFIBRE (g)LOW FIBRE CHOICEFIBRE (g)
1/2 cup cooked green or orange vegetables2.51 cup vegetable juice0
1 piece of fruit21 cup fruit juice0
1 slice grainy or wholemeal bread21 slice white bread1
1 cup cooked brown rice1.51 cup cooked white rice1
Breakfast cereal: 2 wheat biscuits or 3/4 cup rolled oats or untoasted muesli3.5+One bowl of white or refined cereal e.g. flakes of corn0.5 - 1
Beans (1/2 cup)7
Mixed nuts (1/4 cup)3


高纤维的选择纤维(克)低纤维选择纤维(克)
½ 杯熟的绿色或橙色蔬菜2.51杯蔬菜汁0
1 个水果21杯果汁0
1片添加谷物或全麦面包21片白面包1
1 杯糙米饭1.51杯白米饭1
早餐麦片: 2块小麦饼干 ¾ 杯燕麦或生什锦麦片3.5+一碗白的或精制谷类食物 比如玉米片0.5 - 1
豆子(½杯)7
混合坚果 (1/4 杯)3

To help you achieve 25-30g fibre each day, try the following:

  1. Have plenty of vegetables (aim for 5-6 serves every day)
  2. Choose at least two serves of fruit every day (with skin where possible)
  3. Choose high fibre cereal foods (wholemeal or wholegrain) more often than white or refined varieties
  4. Include beans, nuts and seeds regularly in your diet

要达到每天摄入25–30克纤维的目标,您可以尝试以下建议:

  1. 摄入充足的蔬菜(争取每天至少5–6份)
  2. 每天至少吃两份水果(如果可能的话连皮吃)
  3. 更经常选择高纤维的谷类食物(全麦或全谷物),而不是白色或精制 食物
  4. 经常在您的饮食中加入豆类、坚果和种子

 

Getting enough fibre each day

每天摄入充足的纤维

Choose at least 5-6 vegetable serves each day (plus the skin if edible) of fresh, frozen, dried or low salt canned vegetables.

每天至少选择5–6份新鲜、冷冻、干燥或低盐罐装的蔬菜 (加上皮,如果能吃的话)。

What is a serve of vegetable?
一份蔬菜是多少?

    • Half a cup of cooked broccoli, spinach, carrots, pumpkin, sweet corn and peas

  • 半杯煮熟的西兰花、菠菜、胡萝卜、南瓜、玉米和豌豆

    • One cup of green leafy or raw salad vegetables

  • 一杯绿叶蔬菜或生的蔬菜沙拉

    • Half a medium potato, sweet potato or one medium tomato

  • 半个中等土豆、红薯或一个中等番茄

Limit your intake of fried vegetables such as potato chips or crisps
限制油炸蔬菜的摄入,比如薯条或薯片


Choose at least two serves of fruit each day (plus the skin if possible). You can have fresh, stewed, frozen, dried or canned fruit in natural juice (not syrup).

每天选择至少两份水果(如果可能的话连皮一起吃)。您可以食用新鲜、炖的、冷冻、干制或浸在天然果汁 (不是糖浆)里的罐装水果。

What is a serve of fruit?
一份水果是多少?

  • One medium apple, banana, orange or pear
  • Two small apricots, kiwifruit or plums
  • One cup diced or canned fruit (no added sugar)
  • 一个中等的苹果、香蕉、橙子或梨子
  • 两个小的杏子、猕猴桃或李子
  • 一杯切丁或罐装的水果 (未添加糖)

    • 30g dried fruit (11/2 tablespoons of sultanas or 4 dried apricots)

  • 30克水果干 (1½汤匙葡萄干或4个杏脯)

Some fruits have long been used to keep bowels regular
有些水果很久以来被用来通便

Figs
无花果

Kiwifruit
猕猴桃

Prunes
西梅

Dates
枣子


Choose high fibre cereal foods (wholemeal or wholegrain) more often than white or refined varieties.

更经常选择高纤维的谷类食物(全麦或全谷物),而不是白色或精制食物。

Choose high fibre or wholegrain breakfast cereals
选择高纤维或全谷物的早餐谷类食物

  • Oats, porridge, natural muesli, high fibre wheat or bran cereals
  • 燕麦、麦片粥、天然什锦麦片、高纤维小麦或麸皮麦片

Add fibre to your favourite breakfast cereals

  • Sprinkle on nuts or seeds e.g. LSA (linseed, sunflower and almond)
  • Add 1–2 tablespoons of bran or flax seed
  • Mix your preferred cereal with a very high fibre breakfast cereal

在您最喜爱的早餐谷类食物中添加纤维

  • 撒上一些坚果或种子,比如LSA (亚麻仁、葵花籽和杏仁)
  • 添加1–2汤匙麸皮或亚麻籽
  • 在您喜欢的麦片中放入较高纤维的早餐谷类食物

Choose wholemeal bread or grainy bread, toast, rolls, pita bread, pasta or rice

  • Wholemeal or wholegrain bread, rolls, pita, lavish, mountain bread or dark rye breads
  • Brown pasta (or mix brown pasta with white pasta)
  • Brown or wild rice (or mix white rice with brown rice)
  • Wholemeal lasagna sheets
  • Wholemeal rice in stir frys, risottos and curries
  • Grainy crisp bread instead of white crackers

选择全麦面包或谷物面包、吐司、小面包、皮塔饼、意大利面或米饭

  • 全麦或全谷物面包、小面包、皮塔饼、亚美尼亚面包、薄饼或黑麦面包
  • 全麦意大利面(或将全麦和精制意大利面混合)
  • 糙米或野生稻(或将白米与糙米混合)
  • 全麦千层饼面皮
  • 用全麦米炒饭、做意式焗饭和咖喱饭
  • 用谷物脆饼替代白饼干

Add high fibre grains when cooking or preparing meals

  • Soups: add beans, lentils, split peas or barley
  • Salads: use quinoa, brown rice, wild rice, buckwheat or cracked wheat (burghal) for example tabouli
  • Baking:
    • Use wholemeal flour or oats instead of white flour, for example muffins, pikelets or making oat crumble toppings
    • When a well-risen product is required such as scones or cakes use half white flour mixed with half wholemeal flour
    • Use wholegrain bread crumbs instead of white for crumbing fish or chicken

在烹饪或准备食物时添加高纤维谷物

  • 汤: 添加豆子、小扁豆、青豆或大麦
  • 沙拉: 使用藜麦、糙米、野生稻、荞麦或碾碎的麦子(碎小麦),比如中东沙拉
  • 烘培:
    • 使用全麦粉或燕麦代替白面粉,比如杯状小松糕、小圆饼或烤制燕麦碎
    • 有些像英式松饼或蛋糕这样需要充分发酵的材料,可将一半白面粉和一半全麦粉混合
    • 给鱼或鸡抹上面包屑时,使用全谷物面包屑代替白面包屑


Include beans, nuts and seeds regularly in your diet

经常在您的饮食中包含豆类、坚果和种子

Breakfast

  • Sprinkle nuts and seeds on breakfast cereal
  • Try baked beans or peanut paste on high fibre toast

早餐

  • 在早餐麦片上撒上坚果和种子
  • 尝试在高纤维吐司上放上烤豆或抹上花生酱

Cooking or preparing meals

  • Add lentils, whole barley or split peas to soups and meals such as lasagna, casseroles or stews, or choose dishes based on beans such as dahl
  • Add beans to pasta dishes such as spaghetti bolognese, burritos, chilli con carne or tacos

烹饪或准备食物

  • 在汤和主食中添加小扁豆、整粒大麦或青豆,比如千层饼、法国烤锅或炖菜,或是以豆类为主料的印度料理
  • 在意大利面中放入豆类,比如意大利肉酱面、墨西哥卷饼、墨西哥辣肉酱或玉米饼

Salads

Add canned beans, four-bean mix, chickpeas or toasted nuts

沙拉

加入罐装豆类、四种混合豆类 、鸡心豆或烤制的坚果

Snacks

  • Trail mix (unsalted nuts and dried fruit)
  • Popcorn – plain or lightly salted
  • Wholegrain crackers and hummus

零食

  • 混合坚果果干 (无盐的坚果和干果)
  • 爆米花 – 无盐或少盐
  • 全谷物饼干和鹰嘴豆泥


What about fluids?
那么水分呢?

Fibre and water work together to keep us regular. Without enough fluid, increasing fibre may result in constipation, so always have enough to drink each day.

纤维和水一起作用能让我们规律排便。没有足够的水分,增加纤维可能会导致便秘,所以每天要喝充足的水

What drinks should I choose?

Water is preferred over drinks with added sugar (such as soft drinks, cordials, sports and energy drinks) and fruit juice, as water has no calories and will not result in weight gain. Water is also preferred over diet soft drinks and fruit juice as the acidity of these drinks can break down the hard covering on our teeth called enamel.

我应该选择什么样的饮料?

比起加糖的饮料(比如汽水、浓缩果汁、运动和能量饮料)和果汁,白水更加理想,因为水没有热量,而且不会导致体重增加。水也要比低糖汽水和果汁更好,因为这些饮料中的酸会破坏我们牙齿上叫做牙釉质的保 护层。

How much?

As a general rule aim for 1.5–2 litres of fluid per day (6–8 glasses) unless advised otherwise by your doctor. More fluid may be required in hot weather and when exercising.

要喝多少?

正常要求每天摄入1.5–2升液体(6–8杯),除非您的医生有做其他要求。在炎热的天气和运动时,可能需要摄入更多的液体。

What about tea and coffee?

  • Tea and coffee can count as part of your fluid intake
  • Tea and coffee (or caffeine drinks) may need to be reduced if you have urinary incontinence. Discuss this with a continence health professional if you have any concerns

那么茶和咖啡呢?

  • 可以将茶和咖啡计入您的液体摄入量
  • 如果您有小便失禁,那么茶和咖啡(或咖啡因饮品)可能需要减量。如果您有任何问题,请与排便节制的专业健康人员交流


Boosting your fibre: slowly does it
增加你的纤维: 慢慢进行

  • Increase your fibre slowly. Try making one change per week to avoid gas, bloating, cramps and diarrhoea from building up fibre intake too quickly.
  • Plenty of fluids help the fibre work better, so drink more as you increase your fibre
  • 慢慢增加您的纤维摄入。尝试每周做出一个改变,从而避免因过快累积纤维而导致的胀气、胀满、绞痛和腹泻。
  • 充足的液体能帮助纤维作用发挥得更好,所以在增加纤维摄入的同时要多喝水。

Fibre supplements

Try to avoid making up for a low fibre eating plan by relying mainly on fibre supplements or foods with concentrated sources of fibre such as bran or psyllium husk. These may give you enough fibre but you will miss out on the mixture of fibre which is needed to protect the gut. If you feel you need a fibre supplement and would like more information, talk to a continence health professional or Dietitian.

纤维补充剂

尝试避免因主要依赖于纤维补充剂或含有浓缩纤维的食物(比如麸皮或车前子壳)而做的低纤维饮食计划。这样做可能会给您充足的纤维,但您会失去保护肠道的纤维混合物。如果您觉得您需要纤维补充剂以及想了解更多信息,请与排便节制的专业健康人员或饮食学家交流。