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Constipation and Bowel Control

便秘和排便控制

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This fact sheet explains what constipation is and suggests some ideas for improvement and tells you where to get more help.

这份资料帮助您了解什么是便秘,并提出了一些建议,帮助改善症状,告诉您何处能获得更多帮助。

What is constipation?

Constipation is a common disorder where bowel actions ('poo' or faeces) are not easily and/or less frequently passed. Symptoms of constipation include:

  • Hard stools
  • Excessive straining
  • Being unable to pass faecal matter and/or feeling as though your bowels are not completely emptied

什么是便秘?

便秘是一种常见的紊乱症,大便(屎或粪便)不能通畅地排出以及/或排便频率较低。便秘的症状有:

  • 大便硬
  • 过于用力
  • 不能排出大便以及/或感到似乎大便没有完全排净

What does being 'Regular' mean?

  • You can 'hold on' to your bowel action until you get to the toilet
  • Once you are sitting on the toilet you can start a bowel action
  • You feel that you have emptied your bowel fully
  • Going to the toilet anywhere between 3 times a day to 3 times a week.
  • Being 'regular' can vary from person to person.

“规律”排便是什么意思?

  • 您能忍住直到能够到达厕所为止
  • 一坐在马桶上就可以开始大便
  • 您感觉大便完全排净
  • 排便频率在每天三次到一周三次之间
  • 每个人的“规律”都不一样

What can cause constipation?

  • Insufficient fibre intake in the diet
  • Insufficient daily fluid intake
  • Insufficient exercise
  • Prescription and/or over-the-counter pain relief medications or chronic health conditions
  • Pregnancy and childbirth
  • Bowel disorders and/or damage that require further medical investigation
  • Prolapse - a sagging and/or collapsing of internal organs which interferes with bladder and bowel control

什么会导致便秘?

  • 饮食中纤维摄入不足
  • 每日液体摄入不足
  • 锻炼不充足
  • 处方药以及/或非处方止痛药或慢性病
  • 怀孕和生产
  • 肠道紊乱以及/或损伤,需要做进一步医学调查
  • 脱垂—松垂以及/或塌陷的内部器官会干扰大小便控制

What should your 'poo' look like?

Your poo should be light or dark brown, sausage-shaped, soft but firm, easy to pass and with minimal odour. Aim to have a type 3 or type 4 bowel action.

您的大便应该是什么样的?

您的大便应该是淡棕色或深棕色、形状似香肠、松软但成形、容易排出,臭味极少。争取大便达到三型和四型。

Common Bowel Problems

Faecal Impaction - When constipation causes faeces to pack the intestine (digestive tract) so tightly that your normal pushing action in the toilet is not strong enough to push the faeces out.

Faecal Incontinence (sometimes referred to as 'spoiling') - This is the accidental loss of liquid or solid faeces. This can be due to the bowel (which stores the faeces) being too full, but this may be only one of the causes. Uncontrolled flatus ('wind') is often considered evidence of faecal incontinence.

Haemorrhoids (sometimes referred to as 'piles') - This can be the result of straining to have a bowel movement. This strain (similar to heavy lifting) can damage the rectum's veins. This can cause bleeding, soreness and itching.

Rectal Prolapse - This occurs when long-term straining causes a small amount of bowel lining to push out from the anus, which is a ring of muscle that opens and closes when we pass a bowel motion. This type of prolapse is called a rectocele.

常见的肠道问题

粪便阻塞 – 当便秘导致粪便在大肠(消化道)中紧紧挤满时,您在如厕时正常的用力已经不足以将这些粪便 排出。

粪便失禁(有时也称作“拉裤子”)– 这是将液态或固态的粪便意外漏出。这可能会是因为肠道(储存粪便的部分)太满,但这可能是很多原因中的一个。不能控制的肠胃胀气(“屁”)通常认为是粪便失禁的迹象。

痔疮 (有时也叫“痔核”) – 会因排便时过于用力而导致。这种用力(类似提拉重物)会 损伤直肠血管。会导致流血、疼痛和瘙痒。

直肠脱垂 – 这种情况的发生是因为长期过度用力导致小部分大肠壁被挤出肛门,肛门是我们排便时打开和关闭的一圈肌肉。这种脱垂叫做脱肛。

How constipation affects bladder control

Constipation can cause accidential leakage from your bladder. An overfull bowel will cut down the volume of urine your bladder can hold and you will feel the need to go to the toilet often and in a hurry.

便秘如何会影响小便控制

便秘会导致意外漏尿。过满的肠道会降低膀胱对尿液的储存量,从而使您经常感到需要去厕所而且很紧急。

Here are five ways to keep your bladder and bowel healthy and prevent constipation:

Eat well to keep your bowels regular and to have a healthy body weight

Eat a healthy diet high in fibre (at least 30g per day).

Drink well to prevent constipation and bladder irritation

Drink 1.5 -2 Litres(6-8 glasses) of fluid each day unless advised otherwise by your doctor. Fluid is water, fruit juice, tea, coffee, milk, soup, jellies and icecream.

Exercise daily to prevent constipation and keep a healthy body weight

Keep your pelvic floor strong for good bladder and bowel control

Request a pelvic floor muscle exercise leaflet by calling the National Continence Helpline 1800 33 00 66.

Toileting habits - Go to the toilet as soon as you need to and empty you bowel fully. Remember to relax.

以下是五种方法能保持您的膀胱和大肠健康,从而防止便秘:

健康饮食,使您的排便规律,同时保持健康体重

富含高纤维(每天至少30克)的健康饮食。

喝水足量,以防止便秘和膀胱刺激症

每天喝1.5 -2升(6-8杯)液体,除非您的医生另有建议。液体是指水、果汁、茶、咖啡、牛奶、汤、果冻和冰 淇淋。

每天锻炼防止便秘,以及保持健康体重

保持您的盆腔底肌强健,从而对大小便有更好的控制

请拨打1800 33 00 66,致电National Continence Helpline,索取一份盆腔底肌练习手册。

如厕习惯 -一旦有需要就去厕所,并将大便完全排净。记得要放松。

Check your toileting postion:

  • Your knees should be raised slightly above the level of your hips
  • A small footstool might be needed to get you into the best position
  • See the diagram below for further help

检查您的如厕姿势:

  • 您的膝盖应该略微高出胯部
  • 一个小的踮脚凳可能会帮助您做到最好的姿势
  • 查阅以下图示获得更多帮助

Laxatives

  • Laxatives are medicines that will help loosen the bowel to prevent blockages and straining.
  • Talk to your doctor about using these.
  • Generally, laxatives should only be taken for short periods of time.

泻药

  • 泻药可以帮助松动大便以防止堵塞和过于用力。
  • 与您的医生谈一谈使用事宜。
  • 一般来说,泻药只能短期使用。

There are three types of laxatives:

  • Bulking Agents - These increase the bulk of the stool (faeces). Drinking at least 6-8 glasses of fluid daily is essential.
  • Lubricant Laxatives - These soften the faeces and make them easier to pass.
  • Stimulant/Irritant Laxatives - These make the bowel more active in moving faeces through the bowel.

泻药有三种:

  • 成形剂 ‐ 使大便(粪便)更加成形。每天喝至少6-8杯液体很重要。
  • 润滑型泻药 ‐ 软化粪便,从而更易排出。
  • 刺激性泻药 ‐ 使肠道蠕动更加活跃,将粪便排出肠道。

If constipation is severe or continuing, go to your Doctor.

如果便秘很严重或持续下去,请去看您的医生。

Who can help?

The first step to improving your bowel control is to have a full continence assessment carried out by a health professional.

谁能提供帮助?

改善您的大便控制的第一步是由专业健康人员做一个全面的排便节制评估。

For more information

There are a range of health professionals who can help you deal with constipation.

  • Visit your GP or specialist
  • Telephone a Continence Nurse Advisor on the National Continence Helpline 1800 33 00 66
  • To use an interpreter, ring the Translating and Interpreting Service (TIS) on 13 14 50

更多信息

有很多专业健康人员能够帮助您应对便秘问题。

  • 见家庭医生或者专科医生
  • 拨打1800 33 00 66 National Continence Helpline,致电排便节制护士顾问
  • 如果需要翻译,请拨打电话13 14 50,致电笔译与口译服务(TIS)