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Pelvic Floor Muscle Training For Women

女性骨盆底肌肉锻炼

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What are the pelvic floor muscles?

The floor of the pelvis is made up of layers of muscle and other tissues. These layers stretch like a hammock from the tailbone at the back, to the pubic bone in front.

A woman’s pelvic floor muscles support her bladder, womb (uterus) and bowel (colon). The urine tube (front passage), the vagina and the back passage all pass through the pelvic floor muscles. Your pelvic floor muscles help you to control your bladder and bowel. They also help sexual function. It is vital to keep your pelvic floor muscles strong.

什么是骨盆底肌肉?

骨盆底是由多层肌肉及其它组织构成的。这些肌肉及组织像吊床一样,从背后的尾骨延伸至前面的耻骨。

女性的骨盆底肌肉支撑其膀胱﹑子宫及大肠(结肠)。尿道(尿道口),阴道及肛门都穿过骨盆底肌层。你的骨盆底肌肉帮助你控制大小便。它们也有助于性功能。保持骨盆底肌肉强健十分重要。

Pelvic Floor Muscle

 

Pelvic Floor Muscle

Why should I do pelvic floor muscle training?

Women of all ages need to have strong pelvic floor muscles.

Pelvic floor muscles can be made weaker by:

  • not keeping them active;
  • being pregnant and having babies;
  • constipation;
  • being overweight;
  • heavy lifting;
  • coughing that goes on for a long time (such as smoker’s cough, bronchitis or asthma); and
  • growing older.

Women with stress incontinence – that is, women who wet themselves when they cough, sneeze or are active – will find pelvic floor muscle training can help in getting over this problem.

For pregnant women, pelvic floor muscle training will help the body cope with the growing weight of the baby. Healthy, fit muscles before the baby is born will mend more easily after the birth.

After the birth of your baby, you should begin pelvic floor muscle training as soon as you can. Always try to “brace” your pelvic floor muscles (squeeze up and hold) each time before you cough, sneeze or lift the baby. This is called having “the knack”.

As women grow older, the pelvic floor muscles need to stay strong because hormone changes after menopause can affect bladder control. As well  as this, the pelvic floor muscles change and may get weak. A pelvic floor muscle training plan can help to lessen the effects of menopause on pelvic support and bladder control.

Pelvic floor muscle training may also help women who have the urgent need to pass urine more often (called urge incontinence).

我为什么需要做骨盆底肌肉锻炼?

女性在任何年龄都需要强有力的骨盆底肌肉。

以下原因会令骨盆底肌肉变弱:

  • 没有保持这些肌肉运动;
  • 怀孕及生孩子;
  • 便秘;
  • 肥胖;
  • 提举重物;
  • 长期持续性咳嗽(如吸烟咳嗽,患支气管炎或哮喘);以及
  • 进入老年。

有压力性大小便失禁的女性—也就是咳嗽,打喷嚏或做运动时会尿湿裤子的女性—会发现骨盆底肌肉锻炼有助于解决这个问题。

对于孕妇,骨盆底肌肉锻炼有助于身体承受胎儿重量不断增加。产前肌肉强健,产后就比较容易恢复。

你应该在产后尽快开始骨盆底肌肉锻炼。每次咳嗽,打喷嚏或抱婴儿之前要总是尽量将你的骨盆底肌肉“绷紧”(向上收紧并持续下去)。这被称为有“窍门”。

随着女性年龄增大,骨盆底肌肉需要保持强健,因为绝经之后的荷尔蒙变化会影响排尿控制。此外,骨盆底肌肉会发生变化,并可能变弱。骨盆底肌肉锻炼计划有助于减少绝经对骨盆底支撑力及排尿控制的影响。

骨盆底肌肉锻炼对于经常因尿急需要排尿(称为紧迫性失禁)的女性同样有帮助。

Where are my pelvic floor muscles?

The first thing to do is to find out which muscles you need to train.

  1. Sit or lie down with the muscles of your thighs, buttocks and stomach relaxed.
  2. Squeeze the ring of muscle around the back passage as if you are trying to stop passing wind. Now relax this muscle. Squeeze and let go a couple of times until you are sure you have found the right muscles. Try not to squeeze your buttocks.
  3. When sitting on the toilet to empty your bladder, try to stop the stream of urine, then start it again. Do this to learn which muscles are the right ones to use – but only once a week. Your bladder may not empty the way it should if you stop and start your stream more often than that.

If you don’t feel a distinct “squeeze and lift” of your pelvic floor muscles, or if you can’t slow your stream of urine as talked about in Point 3, ask for help from your doctor, physiotherapist, or continence nurse. They will help you to get your pelvic floor muscles working right.

Women with very weak pelvic floor muscles can benefit from pelvic floor muscle training.

我的骨盆底肌肉在哪里?

首先要找出你需要锻炼哪些肌肉。

  1. 坐下或躺下,放松大腿,臀部及腹部的肌肉。
  2. 收紧肛门周围的环形肌肉,就像你正尽力忍着不排气一样。然后放松这块肌肉。收紧及放松数次,直到确定你已经找到正确的肌肉为止。尽量不要收紧臀部。
  3. 坐在马桶上小便时,试着中断尿流,然后重新开始排尿。通过这样做来了解该用哪些肌肉—但只能每星期做一次。如果中断后重新开始排尿超过一次,你的膀胱可能不会以正常的方式排空。

如果你没有明显感觉到骨盆底肌肉“收紧及提起”,或者如果你不能像第3点提到的那样减慢排尿,就要向你的医生,理疗师,或排便科护士寻求帮助。他们会帮你令你的骨盆底肌肉正常工作。

骨盆底肌肉非常弱的女性将会从骨盆底肌肉锻炼中受益。

How do I do pelvic floor muscle training?

Now that you can feel the muscles working, you can:

  • Squeeze and draw in the muscles around your back passage and your vagina at the same time. Lift them UP inside. You should have a sense of “lift” each time you squeeze your pelvic floor muscles. Try to hold them strong and tight as you count to 8. Now, let them go and relax. You should have a distinct feeling of “letting go”.
  • Repeat “squeeze and lift” and let go. It is best to rest for about 8 seconds in between each lift up of the muscles. If you can’t hold for 8, just hold for as long as you can.
  • Repeat this “squeeze and lift” as many times as you can, up to a limit of 8 to 12 squeezes.
  • Try to do three sets of 8 to 12 squeezes each, with a rest in between.
  • Do this whole training plan (three sets of 8 to 12 squeezes) each day while lying down, sitting or standing.

While doing pelvic floor muscle training:

  • keep breathing;
  • only squeeze and lift;
  • do NOT tighten your buttocks; and
  • keep your thighs relaxed.

我如何做骨盆底肌肉锻炼?

既然你可以感觉到肌肉在运动,你就可以:

  • 同时收紧并向内收起肛门及阴道周围的肌肉。将这些肌肉向内向上提。每次收紧骨盆底肌肉时,你应该有“提起”的感觉。尽量一边用力保持收紧一边数到8。然后放松这些肌肉并让自己松弛下来。你应该有明显的“放松”感觉。
  • 重复“收紧及提起”然后放松。最好在每次提起肌肉之间休息8秒左右。如果你收紧不能坚持数到8,只需量力而为。
  • 尽量多次重复这种“收紧及提起”锻炼,每组最多收紧8至12次。
  • 尽量做3组8至12次收紧,每组之间要休息。
  • 每天在躺下﹑坐下或站立时做完整套锻炼计划(3组8至12次收紧)。

进行骨盆底肌肉锻炼时:

  • 保持正常呼吸;
  • 只收紧及提起;
  • 不要绷紧臀部;以及
  • 保持大腿放松。

Do your pelvic floor muscle training well

Fewer good squeezes are better than a lot of half hearted ones! If you are not sure that you are doing the squeezes right, or if you do not see a change in symptoms after 3 months, ask for help from your doctor, physiotherapist, or continence nurse.

认真进行骨盆底肌肉锻炼

认真地做几次收紧锻炼比马马虎虎地做很多次效果好!如果你不确定你的收紧锻炼做得是否正确,或者3个月之后症状未改变,就要向你的医生,理疗师,或排便科护士寻求帮助。

Make the training part of your daily life

Once you have learnt how to do pelvic floor muscle squeezes, you should do them often. Every day is best. You should give each set of squeezes your full focus. Make a regular time to do your pelvic floor muscle squeezes. This might be after going to the toilet, when having a drink, or when lying in bed.

Other things you can do to help your pelvic floor muscles:

  • Use “the knack” - that is, always try to “brace” your pelvic floor muscles (by squeezing up and holding) each time before you cough, sneeze or lift anything.
  • Share the lifting of heavy loads.
  • Eat fruit and vegetables and drink 1.5 - 2 litres of fluid per day.
  • Don’t strain when using your bowels.
  • Ask your doctor about hay fever, asthma and bronchitis to ease sneezing and coughing.
  • Keep your weight within the right range for your height and age.

令锻炼成为你日常生活的一部份

你一旦学会了如何做骨盆底肌肉收紧锻炼,就要经常进行锻炼。最好是每天都做。你应该全心全意地做每一组锻炼。你应该定时做骨盆底肌肉收紧锻炼,可以在去厕所之后,喝东西时,或者躺在床上时锻炼。

其它对加强骨盆底肌肉有帮助的做法:

  • 使用“窍门”—也就是每次咳嗽,打喷嚏或提举任何物品之前总是尽量将你的骨盆底肌肉“绷紧”(收紧肌肉并持续下去)。
  • 不要自己一人提举重物。
  • 每天吃水果和蔬菜,饮用1.5—2升液体。
  • 排大便时不要过度用力。
  • 向你的医生查询花粉症﹑哮喘及支气管炎的治疗,以缓解打喷嚏及咳嗽。
  • 保持你的体重处于符合你的身高及年龄的范围内。

Seek help

Qualified nurses are available if you call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66* (Monday to Friday, between 8.00am to 8.00pm Australian Eastern Standard Time) for free:

  • Information;
  • Advice; and
  • Leaflets.

If you have difficulty speaking or understanding English you can access the Helpline through the free Telephone Interpreter Service on 13 14 50. The phone will be answered in English, so please name the language you speak and wait on the phone. You will be connected to an interpreter who speaks your language. Tell the interpreter you wish to call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66. Wait on the phone to be connected and the interpreter will assist you to speak with a continence nurse advisor. All calls are confidential.

* Calls from mobile telephones are charged at applicable rates.

寻求帮助

如果你致电国家排便节制热线,有资质的护士会接听你的电话1800 33 00 66*(周一至周五,澳大利亚东部标准时间8:00am—8:00pm)。

  • 信息;
  • 建议;及
  • 资料册。

如果你在讲英语或者理解上有困难,你可以通过拨打13 14 50获取免费电话传译服务以接通国家排便节制热线。电话会用英语接通,因此请说明你要讲的语言并且不要挂机。你会被连接到一个讲你母语的传译员。告知传译员你想要致电国家排便节制热线,电话是1800 33 00 66。待电话接通后传译员会帮助你与排便节制护理顾问对话,所有的来电均保密。

* 用手机打出会收取相应费用。