The back passage. The opening at the end of the intestinal tract that allows passage of faeces. 

A muscular organ, a sac, which stores urine. The muscles within the bladder operate like a pump, contracting to push out urine. 


Tail bone at the bottom of the spine.

Difficulty in passing a bowel motion. The motion may be hard and require straining. Visit our page on constipation.

Inflammation of the bladder.

For our bodies to work properly we need to convert glucose (sugar) from food into energy. A hormone called insulin is essential for the conversion of glucose into energy. In people with diabetes, insulin is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. 

These increase production of urine and are usually prescribed for people with high blood pressure, heart or breathing disorders

Enuresis is the involuntary loss of urine. When it occurs during sleep at night it is referred to as nocturnal enuresis.

The inability to get and / or keep an erection that allows sexual activity with penetration.

Bowel motions or stools. The waste product from digestion.

Wind in the bowel or expelled from the anus.

A need to empty the bladder often with only short times between toilet visits. At night, this is called Nocturia.

The accidental or involuntary loss of urine from the bladder, or faeces from the bowel.

A bowel that is sluggish in moving faeces along or is slow to react to being full.

A band of muscles across the base of the pelvis. Like a sling or hammock, they support the position of the pelvic organs such as the bladder and bowel. Visit our pelvic floor page for more information.

A form of medication taken by vagina (by applicator) or a device inserted into the vagina to support vaginal prolapse.

The falling or sliding of an organ from its normal position in the body. In the pelvis, this may refer to the uterus, vagina, bladder, urethra, rectum or bowel. Visit our page on prolapse for more information.

This gland found in men sits around the neck of the bladder and the urethra. It produces fluid during sexual intercourse. The prostate grows larger in most men over 50 years of age and can start to block the bladder outlet.

Bone at the front of the pelvis beneath the pubic hair. The bladder is located just below the pubic bone.

The lower end of the bowel just above the anus. It lies on the sacrum (back-bone). Sensation for defecation is felt here when faeces enter the sacrum. 

A valve to the bladder or anus that opens or closes.

The material evacuated with a bowel movement (faeces).

The leakage of urine with physical exertion or effort (such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, exercising, walking, or when lifting things). It is caused by a weakening of the pelvic floor muscles. Visit our page on stress incontinence for more information.

The bladder outlet tube. In women, it sits just in front of the vagina. In men, it sits in front of the rectum and passes through the penis. 

The strong, sudden desire to pass urine or faeces. Visit our page on urge incontinence for more information.

An infection anywhere along the urinary tract.

The liquid produced by the kidneys. Urine is stored in the bladder and passed via the urethra. It contains body waste products. It should be clear, pale and have no odour.

The birth canal in women. It sits between the bladder and rectum.


Last Updated: Thu 29, Feb 2024
Last Reviewed: Wed 31, May 2023