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Systematic reviews

A systematic review is a literature review focused on a single question that tries to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high quality research evidence relevant to that question. Systematic reviews of high-quality randomized controlled trials are crucial to evidence-based medicine.

This page lists systematic reviews (by topic) that have been conducted in relation to continence. Abstracts of the systematic reviews are available from the Cochrane Incontinence Group website.             

Urinary incontinence 

Alhasso AA, Glazener CMA, Pickard R & N'Dow JMO (2005) Adrenergic drugs for urinary incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD001842).

Alhasso AA, McKinlay J, Patrick K & Stewart L (2006) Anticholinergic drugs versus non-drug active therapies for overactive bladder syndrome in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD003193).

Bezerra CA, Bruschini H & Cody DJ (2005) Traditional suburethral sling operations for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD001754).

Bezerra CCB & Plata MS (2007) Minimally invasive sling operations for stress urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Protocols, Issue (1) (CD006375).

Dawson TE & Jamison J (2007) Intravesical treatments for painful bladder syndrome/ interstitial cystitis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD006113).

Dean NM, Ellis G, Wilson PD & Herbison GP (2006) Laparoscopic colposuspension for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD002239).

Dumoulin C & Hay-Smith J. (2008) Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment for urinary incontinence in women. A Cochrane systematic review. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 44(1):47-63.

Duthie J, Wilson DI, Herbison GP & Wilson D (2007) Botulinum toxin injections for adults with overactive bladder syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD005493).

Eustice S, Roe B & Paterson J (2000) Prompted voiding for the management of urinary incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD002113).

Fader M, Cottenden AM & Getliffe K (2008) Absorbent products for moderate-heavy urinary and/or faecal incontinence in women and men. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD007408).

Fader M, Cottenden AM & Getliffe K (2007) Absorbent products for light urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD001406) [Update of: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000;(2):CD001406].

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Fernandez R, Griffiths R & Murie P (2003) Comparison of late night and early morning removal of short-term urethral catheters. JBI Reports, 1(1): 1-16.

Glazener CMA & Cooper K (2004) Bladder neck needle suspension for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD003636).

Glazener CMA & Evans JHC (2004) Simple behavioural and physical interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD003637).

Glazener CMA & Evans JHC (2002) Desmopressin for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD002112).

Glazener CMA, Evans JHC & Cheuk DKL (2005) Complementary and miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD005230).

Glazener CMA, Evans JHC & Peto RE (2005) Alarm interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2). ( CD002911).

Glazener CMA, Evans JHC & Peto RE (2008) Complex behavioural and educational interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (Status unchanged) (CD004668).

Glazener CMA, Evans JHC & Peto RE (2003) Drugs for nocturnal enuresis in children (other than desmopressin and tricyclics). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD002238).

Glazener CMA, Evans JHC &, Peto R (2003) Tricyclic and related drugs for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD002117).

Glazener CMA & Lapitan MC (2002) Urodynamic investigations for management of urinary incontinence in children and adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD003195).

Griffiths R & Fernandez R (2007) Strategies for the removal of short-term indwelling urethral catheters in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD004011). [Update of: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2005;(1):CD004011]                                                

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Hay-Smith EJC & Dumoulin C (2006) Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (1) (CD005654).

Hay-Smith J, Herbison P, Ellis G & Morris A (2005) Which anticholinergic drug for overactive bladder symptoms in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD005429).

Hay-Smith J, Mørkved S, Fairbrother KA & Herbison GP (2008) Pelvic floor muscle training for prevention and treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD007471).

Herbison P & Dean N (2002) Weighted vaginal cones for urinary incontinence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (1) (CD002114).

Hunter KF, Glazener CM & Moore KN (2007) Conservative management for postprostatectomy urinary incontinence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD001843). [Update of: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2004;(2):CD001843].

Jahn P, Preuss M, Kernig A, Seifert-Hühmer A & Langer G (2007) Types of indwelling urinary catheters for long-term bladder drainage in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD004997).

Jamison J, Maguire S & McCann J (2004) Catheter policies for management of long term voiding problems in adults with neurogenic bladder disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD004375).

Keegan PE, Atiemo K, Cody J, McClinton S & Pickard R (2007) Periurethral injection therapy for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD003881).

Khazali S, Jackson S & Balmforth J (2007) Electromagnetic treatment for urinary incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Protocols, Issue (3) (CD006711).

Lapitan MC, Cody DJ & Grant AM (2005) Open retropubic colposuspension for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD002912).

Lockwood C, Page T, Conroy-Hiller T & Florence Z (2004) Management of short-term indwelling urethral catheters to prevent urinary tract infections. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 2(8): 271-291.

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MacDonald R, Fink HA, Huckabay C, Monga M & Wilt TJ. (2007) Pelvic floor muscle training to improve urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a systematic review of effectiveness. BJU Int. 100(1):76-81.

Mariappan P, Alhasso AA, Grant A & N'Dow JMO (2005) Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) for stress urinary incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD004742).

Moehrer B, Hextall A & Jackson S (2003) Oestrogens for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD001405).

Moore KN, Fader M & Getliffe K (2007) Long-term bladder management by intermittent catheterisation in adults and children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD006008).

Nabi G, Cody JD, Ellis G, Herbison P & Hay-Smith J (2006) Anticholinergic drugs versus placebo for overactive bladder syndrome in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD003781).

Nabi G, Cody J, Dublin N, McClinton S, N'Dow JMO, Neal DE, Pickard R & Yong SM (2003) Urinary diversion and bladder reconstruction/replacement using intestinal segments for intractable incontinence or following cystectomy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (1) (CD003306).

Niël-Weise BS & van den Broek PJ (2005) Antibiotic policies for short-term catheter bladder drainage in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD005428).

Niël-Weise BS & van den Broek PJ. (2005) Urinary catheter policies for long-term bladder drainage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (1) (CD004201).

Niël-Weise BS & van den Broek PJ (2005) Urinary catheter policies for short-term bladder drainage in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD004203).

Ostaszkiewicz J, Chestney T & Roe B (2004) Habit retraining for the management of urinary incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD002801).

Ostaszkiewicz J, Johnston L & Roe B (2004) Timed voiding for the management of urinary incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (1) (CD002802).

Phipps S, Lim YN, McClinton S, Barry C, Rane A & N'Dow J (2006) Short term urinary catheter policies following urogenital surgery in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD004374).

Roxburgh C, Cook J & Dublin N (2007) Anticholinergic drugs versus other medications for overactive bladder syndrome in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD003190). [Update of: Cochrane Database of SystematicReviews. 2007;(3):CD003190].

Schumm K & Lam TBL (2008) Types of urethral catheters for management of short-term voiding problems in hospitalised adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD004013).

Shaikh S, Ong EK, Glavind K, Cook J & N'Dow JMO (2006) Mechanical devices for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD001756).

Thomas LH, Cross S, Barrett J, French B, Leathley M, Sutton CJ & Watkins C (2008) Treatment of urinary incontinence after stroke in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Jan 23; (1):CD004462. [Update of: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2005; (3):CD004462].

Wallace SA, Roe B, Williams K & Palmer M (2004) Bladder training for urinary incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (1) (CD001308).

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Faecal incontinence

Brazzelli M & Griffiths P (2006) Behavioural and cognitive interventions with or without other treatments for the management of faecal incontinence in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD002240).

Brown SR & Nelson RL. (2007) Surgery for faecal incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD001757) [Update of: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000;(2):CD001757].

Cheetham MJ, Brazzelli M, Norton CC & Glazener CMA (2002) Drug treatment for faecal incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD002116).  

Coggrave M, Wiesel PH & Norton C (2006) Management of faecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central neurological diseases. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD002115).

Deutekom M & Dobben A (2005) Plugs for containing faecal incontinence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD005086).  

Fader M, Cottenden AM & Getliffe K (2008) Absorbent products for moderate-heavy urinary and/or faecal incontinence in women and men. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD007408).

Fallon A, Westaway J & Moloney C (2008) A systematic review of psychometric evidence and expert opinion regarding the assessment of faecal incontinence in older community-dwelling adults. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 6(2):225-259.

Hay-Smith J, Mørkved S, Fairbrother KA & Herbison GP (2008) Pelvic floor muscle training for prevention and treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Issue (4) (CD007471)

Hosker G, Cody JD & Norton CC (2007) Electrical stimulation for faecal incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD001310). [Update of: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000;(2):CD001310].

Mowatt G, Glazener C & Jarrett M (2007) Sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence and constipation in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD004464). [Update of: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2003;(2):CD003881].

Mowatt G, Glazener C & Jarrett M (2008) Sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence and constipation in adults: a short version Cochrane review. Neurourol Urodyn. 27(3):155-161.

Norton C, Cody JD & Hosker G (2006) Biofeedback and/or sphincter exercises for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD002111).

Tou S, Brown SR, Malik AI & Nelson RL (2008) Surgery for complete rectal prolapse in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD001758).

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Pelvic floor / prolapse

Adams E, Thomson A, Maher C & Hagen S (2004) Mechanical devices for pelvic organ prolapse in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (2) (CD004010).

Hagen S, Stark D, Maher C & Adams EJ (2006) Conservative management of pelvic organ prolapse in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD003882).

Hay-Smith EJC & Dumoulin C (2006) Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (1) (CD005654).

Hay-Smith J, Mørkved S, Fairbrother KA & Herbison GP (2008) Pelvic floor muscle training for prevention and treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD007471)

MacDonald R, Fink HA, Huckabay C, Monga M & Wilt TJ. (2007) Pelvic floor muscle training to improve urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a systematic review of effectiveness. BJU Int. 100(1):76-81.

Maher C, Baessler K, Glazener CMA, Adams EJ & Hagen S. (2007) Surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (3) (CD004014).

Maher C, Baessler K, Glazener CM, Adams EJ & Hagen S (2008) Surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse in women: a short version Cochrane review. Neurourol Urodyn., 27(1):3-12.

Tou S, Brown SR, Malik AI & Nelson RL (2008) Surgery for complete rectal prolapse in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue (4) (CD001758).

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Skin care

Hodgkinson B & Nay R (2005) Effectiveness of topical skin care provided in aged care facilities. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 3(4): 65-101.      

Chronic illness 

Venning A, Eliott J, Wilson A & Kettler L (2008) Understanding young peoples' experience of chronic illness: a systematic review. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 6(3): 321-336.

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