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Healthy Diet and Bowels

Dieta u msaren b’saћћithom

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Healthy diet and bowels

A healthy diet containing plenty of different fibre rich foods, lots of fluids as well as exercise is recommended to keep our bowels healthy and regular.

Fibre can help protect against diverticular disease, haemorrhoids, constipation and chronic diseases such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes, and can also help with controlling your weight.

Dieta u msaren b’saћћithom

Dieta b’saћћita li jkun fiha ћafna ikel mimli b’fibri differenti tad-dieta, ħafna fluwidi kif ukoll eżerċizzju hi rrakkomandata biex inżommu msarinna b’saћћithom u regulari.

Il-fibra tad-dieta tista’ tgћin fil-protezzjoni kontra l-mard divertikulari, l-morliti, l-kostipazzjoni u mard kroniku bћal mard tal-qalb u d-dijabete tat-tip 2, u tista’ tgћin ukoll biex tikkontrolla l-piż tiegћek.



What is fibre?

Fibre is found only in foods that come from plants. This includes vegetables, fruits, beans (legumes), nuts, seeds and cereals (breakfast cereals, bread, pasta and rice).

X’inhija l-fibra tad-dieta?

Il-fibra tad-dieta tinstab biss fl-ikel li jiġi mill-pjanti. Dan jinkludi l-ћxejjex, il-frott, il-fażoli (il-legumi), ġewż, żrieragћ u ċereali (ċereali tal-kolazzjon, ћobż, gћaġin u ross).

Specialised dietary advice may be required from a Dietitian for conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, faecal incontinence, gluten intolerance, and food sensitivities.

Jista’ jkun meћtieġ parir speċjalizzat minn Speċjalista tad-dieta gћal kundizzjonijiet bћas-sindromu tal-imsaren irritati, mard ta’ infjammazzjoni fl-imsaren, inkontinenza fl-ippurgar, intolleranza tal-proteina tad-dqiq (gluten) u sensittivitajiet tal-ikel.


 

The following foods are fibre rich

Dan l-ikel li ġej huwa sinjur fil-fibra tad-dieta

Vegetables and fruits

Choose fresh, canned, frozen or dried such as sultanas, figs, prunes, and dates.

Ħxejjex u frott

Agћżel frisk, fil-landi, iffriżżat jew imqadded bћal żbib, tin, pruna u tamal.

Cereal foods - high fibre choices

  • High fibre breakfast cereals such as natural muesli, bran cereals and oat cereals
  • High fibre (wholemeal, wholegrain or grainy) bread, rolls, flat bread and crackers
  • Brown rice, wild rice or brown pasta
  • Grains such as barley, buckwheat, burghal, chia, corn, millet, oats, quinoa, rice, rye, semolina, sorghum, spelt and wheat

Ikel ċereali – gћażliet ta’ ћafna fibri

  • Ikel ċereali – gћażliet ta’ ћafna fibri
  • Ħobż, bziezen, ftajjar u krakers b’ћafna fibri tad-dieta (tad-dqiq safi, kollu taż-żrieragћ jew biż-żrieragћ)
  • Ross ismar, ross selvaġġ u gћaġin ismar
  • Żrieragћ bћal xgћir, żrieragћ qamћin, xgћir imfarrak, kia, qamћ ir-rum, dekkuk, ћafur, kwinoa, ross, segala (rye), semolina, sorgu, spelt u qamћ

Beans (legumes)

All beans and peas are fibre rich and examples include: black-eyed beans, borlotti beans, butter beans, cannelini beans, chick peas, haricot beans, kidney beans, lentils, lima beans, mung beans, soy beans and split peas. Foods made from these such as hummus are fibre rich.

Fażoli (legumi)

Il-fażoli u l-piżelli huma kollha sinjuri fil-fibra tad-dieta u l-eżempji jinkludu: fażola sewda, fażola borlotti, fażola ta’ lima, fażola tal-kannellini, ċiċri, fażola ћadra, fażola kannella, gћads, fażola mung, fażola soja, u piżelli maqsuma. Ikel magћmul minn dawn bћalma huwa l-hummus huwa sinjur fil-fibra tad-dieta.

Nuts and seeds

All seeds such as flax, sunflower, sesame and poppy seeds, and all nuts such as almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts.

Ġewż u żrieragћ

Iż-żrieragћ kollha bћal tal-kittien, tal-warda tax-xemx, il-ġunġlien, u ż-żrieragћ tal-pepprin u l-ġewż kollu bћal-lewż, il-kaxju, il-ġellewż, il-makadamja, l-karawett, il-prinjoli, il-pistaċċi u l-ġewż.


 

How much fibre should I have?

Kemm gћandi nieћu fibri tad-dieta?

Aim for at least 25-30g of fibre each day. See the table below for the amount of fibre in different foods.

Immira gћal talanqas 25–30g ta’ fibra kuljum Ara l-iskeda ta’ hawn taћt gћall-ammont ta’ fibra f’ikel differenti.

 
HIGH FIBRE CHOICEFIBRE (g)LOW FIBRE CHOICEFIBRE (g)
1/2 cup cooked green or orange vegetables2.51 cup vegetable juice0
1 piece of fruit21 cup fruit juice0
1 slice grainy or wholemeal bread21 slice white bread1
1 cup cooked brown rice1.51 cup cooked white rice1
Breakfast cereal: 2 wheat biscuits or 3/4 cup rolled oats or untoasted muesli3.5+One bowl of white or refined cereal e.g. flakes of corn0.5 - 1
Beans (1/2 cup)7
Mixed nuts (1/4 cup)3


GĦAŻLA TA’ ĦAFNA FIBRAFIBRA(g)GĦAŻLA TA’ FTIT FIBRAFIBRA(g)
½ kikkra ta’ ћaxix aћdar jew oranġjo msajjar1 kikkra meraq tal-ћaxix0
1 biċċa frotta21 kikkra meraq tal-frott0
1 kisra ћobż biż-żrieragћ jew kollu taż-żrieragћ21 Kisra ћobż1
1 kikkra ross kannella msajjar1 kikkra ross abjad imsajjar1
Ċereali tal-kolazzjon: 2 gallettini tal-qamћ jew ¾ ta’ kikkra ћafur mibrum jew mjusli mhux mixwi3½+Skutella ċereali abjad jew irfinat p.e. qriemeċ tal-qamћ (flakes of corn)½–1
Fażola (½ kikkra)7
Ġewż imћallat (1/4 ta’ kikkra)3

To help you achieve 25-30g fibre each day, try the following:

  1. Have plenty of vegetables (aim for 5-6 serves every day)
  2. Choose at least two serves of fruit every day (with skin where possible)
  3. Choose high fibre cereal foods (wholemeal or wholegrain) more often than white or refined varieties
  4. Include beans, nuts and seeds regularly in your diet

Biex jgћinek tilћaq 25–30g fibra kuljum, ipprova dan li ġej:

  1. Ħu ћafna ћaxix (immira gћal 5–6 porzjonijiet kuljum)
  2. Agћżel talanqas żewġ porzjonijiet ta’ frott kuljum (bil-qoxra meta possibbli)
  3. Agћżel ikel ċereali b’ћafna fibri (kollu qamћ jew kollu żrieragћ) iktar ta’ spiss milli varjetajiet bojod jew irfinati
  4. Inkludi fażola, ġewż, u żrieragћ regolarment fid-dieta tiegћek

 

Getting enough fibre each day

Kif tieћu biżżejjed fibra tad-dieta kuljum

Choose at least 5-6 vegetable serves each day (plus the skin if edible) of fresh, frozen, dried or low salt canned vegetables.

Agћżel talanqas 5–6 porzjonijiet kuljum ta’ ћaxix frisk, iffriżat, imqadded jew fil-landi bi ftit melћ kuljum (bil-qoxra jekk tista’ tittiekel).

What is a serve of vegetable?
Xinhu porzjon ta’ ћaxix?

    • Half a cup of cooked broccoli, spinach, carrots, pumpkin, sweet corn and peas

  • Nofs kikkra ta’ brokkli, spinaċi, karrotti, qargћa aћmar, qamћ ir-rum ћelu u piżelli

    • One cup of green leafy or raw salad vegetables

  • Kikkra bi ћxejjex tal-insalata b’weraq aћdar jew nej

    • Half a medium potato, sweet potato or one medium tomato

  • Nofs ta’ patata medja, patata ћelwa, jew tadama medja

Limit your intake of fried vegetables such as potato chips or crisps
Illimita kemm tiekol ћaxix moqli bћal biċċiet żgћar tal-patata (chips) jew imqarqċin (crisps)


Choose at least two serves of fruit each day (plus the skin if possible). You can have fresh, stewed, frozen, dried or canned fruit in natural juice (not syrup).

Agћżel talanqas żewġ porzjonijiet żgћar ta’ frott kuljum (bil-qoxra jekk possibbli). Tista’ tieћu frott frisk, imsajjar, iffriżat, imqadded jew fil-bottijiet fil-meraq naturali (mhux ġulepp).

What is a serve of fruit?
Xinhu porzjon ta’ frott?

  • One medium apple, banana, orange or pear
  • Two small apricots, kiwifruit or plums
  • One cup diced or canned fruit (no added sugar)
  • Tuffieћa, banana, larinġa jew lanġasa medja
  • Żewġ berquqiet, kiwi jew gћanbaqriet żgћar
  • Kikkra ta’ frott imqattgħa jew frott tal-bott (mingћajr zokkor)

    • 30g dried fruit (11/2 tablespoons of sultanas or 4 dried apricots)

  • 30g frott imqadded (1½ mgћarfa u nofs żbib jew 4 gћanbaqriet imqaddin)

Some fruits have long been used to keep bowels regular
Xi ftit minn dan il-frott ilu jintuża ћafna biex l-imsaren jinżammu regulari

Figs
Tin

Kiwifruit
Frott tal-kiwi

Prunes
Pruni

Dates
Tamal


Choose high fibre cereal foods (wholemeal or wholegrain) more often than white or refined varieties.

Agћżel ikel ċereali b’ћafna fibra (dqiq pur jew kollu żrieragћ) iktar ta’ spiss milli varjetajiet bojod jew irfinati.

Choose high fibre or wholegrain breakfast cereals
Agћżel ċereali tal-kolazzjon b’ћafna fibra jew kollha taż-żrieragћ

  • Oats, porridge, natural muesli, high fibre wheat or bran cereals
  • Ħafur, poriġ, mjusli naturali, ċereali tal-qamћ jew granza b’ћafna fibra

Add fibre to your favourite breakfast cereals

  • Sprinkle on nuts or seeds e.g. LSA (linseed, sunflower and almond)
  • Add 1–2 tablespoons of bran or flax seed
  • Mix your preferred cereal with a very high fibre breakfast cereal

Żid il-fibra fiċ-ċereali tal-kolazzjoni li tћobb inti

  • Roxx fuqhom il-ġewż jew iż-żrieragћ p. e. LSA (tal-kittien, tal-warda tax-xemx, u l-lewż)
  • Żid 1–2 mgћaref granza jew żerriegћa tal-kittien
  • Ħallat iċ-ċereali preferiti tiegћek ma’ ċereali tal-kolazzjon b’ћafna fibra

Choose wholemeal bread or grainy bread, toast, rolls, pita bread, pasta or rice

  • Wholemeal or wholegrain bread, rolls, pita, lavish, mountain bread or dark rye breads
  • Brown pasta (or mix brown pasta with white pasta)
  • Brown or wild rice (or mix white rice with brown rice)
  • Wholemeal lasagna sheets
  • Wholemeal rice in stir frys, risottos and curries
  • Grainy crisp bread instead of white crackers

Agћżel ћobż ta’ dqiq pur jew ћobż biż-żrieragћ, mixwi, bziezen, ћobż bi ftit ћmira (pita), gћaġin u ross

  • Ħobż tad-dqiq pur jew taż-żrieragћ, bziezen, ftira bi ftit ћmira (pita) ftira Armenjana (lavish), ћobż tal-muntanja jew tal-ћafur ismar
  • Gћaġin kannella (jew ћallat l-gћaġin kannella mal-gћaġin abjad)
  • Ross kannella jew selvaġġ (jew ћallat ross abjad ma’ ross kannella)
  • Folji tal-lażanja tad-dqiq pur
  • Ross pur moqli bil-ћaxix (stir frys), risotto u kari
  • Ħobż biż-żrieragћ iqarmeċ minflok il-krakers bojod

Add high fibre grains when cooking or preparing meals

  • Soups: add beans, lentils, split peas or barley
  • Salads: use quinoa, brown rice, wild rice, buckwheat or cracked wheat (burghal) for example tabouli
  • Baking:
    • Use wholemeal flour or oats instead of white flour, for example muffins, pikelets or making oat crumble toppings
    • When a well-risen product is required such as scones or cakes use half white flour mixed with half wholemeal flour
    • Use wholegrain bread crumbs instead of white for crumbing fish or chicken

Żid ћafna fibra tad-dieta meta ssajjar jew tћejji l-ikel

  • Sopop: żid fażola, żerriegћa tal-kittien, piżelli maqsuma u xgћir
  • Insalata: uża il-kwinowa, ross kannella, ross selvaġġ, qamћ ta’ żbul safrani jew qamћ imfarrak pereżempju tabouli
  • Ħami (Baking):
    • Uża dqiq pur jew ћafur minflok dqiq abjad, gћal sfineċ, sfineċ Awstraljani (pikelets) jew tagћmel inkella tgћatti bil-frak tal-ћafur
    • Meta jkun jinћtieġ prodott li jgћola bћall-iskons u l-kejkijiet uża nofs dqiq abjad imћallat ma’ nofs dqiq pur
    • Uża frak tal-ћobż tad-dqiq taż-żrieragħ minflok l-abjad biex tgeżwer fih il-ћut jew it-tiġieġ


Include beans, nuts and seeds regularly in your diet

Inkludi fażola, ġewż u żrieragћ regolarment fid-dieta tiegћek

Breakfast

  • Sprinkle nuts and seeds on breakfast cereal
  • Try baked beans or peanut paste on high fibre toast

Kolazzjon

  • Roxx il-ġewż u ż-żrieragћ fuq iċ-ċereali tal-kolazzjon
  • Ipprova fażola moћmija (baked) jew kunserva tal-karawett fuq biċċa ћobż b’ћafna fibri mixwija

Cooking or preparing meals

  • Add lentils, whole barley or split peas to soups and meals such as lasagna, casseroles or stews, or choose dishes based on beans such as dahl
  • Add beans to pasta dishes such as spaghetti bolognese, burritos, chilli con carne or tacos

Tisjir jew tћejjija tal-ikliet

  • Żid iż-żerrigћa tal-kittien, xgћir sћiћ jew piżelli maqsuma mas-sopop jew ikel bћal-lażanja, casseroles jew stuffat jew agћżel dixx ibbażat fuq il-fażola bћad-dahl (dixx Indjan)
  • Żid il-fażola mad-dixxijiet tal-gћaġin bћall-ispagetti bolonjeżi, il-burritos, bżar aћmar bil-laћam jew it-takos

Salads

Add canned beans, four-bean mix, chickpeas or toasted nuts

Insalati

Żid fażola tal-bott, taћlita ta’ erba´ fażoliet, ċiċri u ġewż inkaljat

Snacks

  • Trail mix (unsalted nuts and dried fruit)
  • Popcorn – plain or lightly salted
  • Wholegrain crackers and hummus

Ikliet żgћar (Snacks)

  • Taћlita ta’ ingredjenti (ġewż mhux immellaћ u frott imqadded)
  • Popkorn – b’xejn jew bi ftit melћ
  • Krakers biż-żrieragћ jew hummus


What about fluids?
Xi ngћidu gћall-fluwidi?

Fibre and water work together to keep us regular. Without enough fluid, increasing fibre may result in constipation, so always have enough to drink each day.

Il-fibra tad-dieta u l-ilma jaћdmu flimkien biex iżommuna regolari. Mingћajr fluwidi, jekk tiżdied il-fibra tista’ tikkawża l-kostipazzjoni, gћalhekk dejjem ixrob biżżejjed kuljum.

What drinks should I choose?

Water is preferred over drinks with added sugar (such as soft drinks, cordials, sports and energy drinks) and fruit juice, as water has no calories and will not result in weight gain. Water is also preferred over diet soft drinks and fruit juice as the acidity of these drinks can break down the hard covering on our teeth called enamel.

Liema xorb gћandi nagћżel?

L-ilma huwa ppreferit minn xorb miżjud biz-zokkor (bћal-luminati, kordjals, xorb tal-isport u l-enerġija) u l-meraq tal-frott, billi l-ilma mgћandux kaloriji u gћalhekk ma jżidx il-piż. L-ilma huwa ppreferit ukoll minn luminati tad-dieta u meraq tal-frott gћax l-aċidità ta’ dan ix-xorb tista’ tkisser l-gћata iebsa ta’ snienna li tissejjaћ enamel.

How much?

As a general rule aim for 1.5–2 litres of fluid per day (6–8 glasses) unless advised otherwise by your doctor. More fluid may be required in hot weather and when exercising.

Kemm?

Bћala regola ġenerali immira gћal 1.5–2 litri ta’ fluwidi kuljum (6–8 tazzi) sakemm ma jagћtikx parir ieћor it-tabib tiegћek. Iktar fluwidu jkun meћtieġ f’temp sћun u meta tkun tagћmel l-eżerċizzju.

What about tea and coffee?

  • Tea and coffee can count as part of your fluid intake
  • Tea and coffee (or caffeine drinks) may need to be reduced if you have urinary incontinence. Discuss this with a continence health professional if you have any concerns

Xi ngћidu gћat-te u l-kafe?

  • It-te u l-kafe jistgћu jkunu parti mill-fluwidi li tieћu
  • It-te u l-kafe (jew xorb bil-kaffeina) jista’ jkun meћtieġ li jitnaqqas jekk ikollok l-inkontinenza urinarja. Jekk ikollok xi tћassib iddiskutih ma’ professjonista tas-saћћa tal-kontinenza.


Boosting your fibre: slowly does it
Tqawwi l-fibra tad-dieta tiegћek: l-aћjar bil-mod

  • Increase your fibre slowly. Try making one change per week to avoid gas, bloating, cramps and diarrhoea from building up fibre intake too quickly.
  • Plenty of fluids help the fibre work better, so drink more as you increase your fibre
  • Żid il-fibra tiegћek bil-mod. Ipprova agћmel tibdila waћda kull ġimgћa biex tevita l-gass, li tћossok ikkuppat/a, il-bugћawwieġ u d-dijareja mill-bini tal-fibra bl-gћaġla zejda.
  • Ħafna fluwidi jgћinu lill-fibra taћdem aћjar, gћalhekk ixrob aktar waqt li żżid il-fibra tiegћek.

Fibre supplements

Try to avoid making up for a low fibre eating plan by relying mainly on fibre supplements or foods with concentrated sources of fibre such as bran or psyllium husk. These may give you enough fibre but you will miss out on the mixture of fibre which is needed to protect the gut. If you feel you need a fibre supplement and would like more information, talk to a continence health professional or Dietitian.

Supplimenti tal-fibra

Ipprova evità li tpatti gћan-nuqqas ta’ fibra fil-pjan tal-ikel tiegħek, billi ma tiddependix prinċipalment fuq supplimenti tal-fibra jew ikel b’sorsi kkonċentrati tal-fibra, bћalma huma l-granza jew il-qoxra tal-psilljum. Dawn jistgћu jagћtuk biżżejjed fibra iżda tkun qed titlef it-taћlita ta’ fibra li hija meћtieġa biex tipproteġi l-istonku. Jekk tћoss li tinћtieġ suppliment ta’ fibra u tkun tixtieq iktar informazzjoni, tkellem ma’ professjonista tas-saћћa tal-kontinenza jew tad-dieta.