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Healthy Diet and Bowels

健康飲食與腸道

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Healthy diet and bowels

A healthy diet containing plenty of different fibre rich foods, lots of fluids as well as exercise is recommended to keep our bowels healthy and regular.

Fibre can help protect against diverticular disease, haemorrhoids, constipation and chronic diseases such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes, and can also help with controlling your weight.

健康飲食與腸道

為了保持我們的腸道健康、正常,建議採取富含不同高纖維食品的健康飲食,多喝流質並且多做運動。

纖維不但可以幫助防止憩室病、痔瘡、便秘以及心臟病和2型糖尿病之類的慢性病,而且還可以幫助控制體重。



What is fibre?

Fibre is found only in foods that come from plants. This includes vegetables, fruits, beans (legumes), nuts, seeds and cereals (breakfast cereals, bread, pasta and rice).

甚麼是纖維?

纖維只存在於植物性食品中。這包括蔬菜、水果、豆類(豆莢)、堅果、種籽和穀類食物(早餐穀類食物、麵包、意粉和米飯)。

Specialised dietary advice may be required from a Dietitian for conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, faecal incontinence, gluten intolerance, and food sensitivities.

對於腸易激綜合症、炎性腸道疾病、大便失禁、麩質不耐受以及食物過敏等病症,可能需要從營養師獲得專門的飲食建議。


 

The following foods are fibre rich

以下食物富含纖維

Vegetables and fruits

Choose fresh, canned, frozen or dried such as sultanas, figs, prunes, and dates.

蔬菜和水果

選擇新鮮、罐頭、冰凍或乾製蔬菜和水果,如葡萄乾、無花果、西梅乾和 紅棗。

Cereal foods - high fibre choices

  • High fibre breakfast cereals such as natural muesli, bran cereals and oat cereals
  • High fibre (wholemeal, wholegrain or grainy) bread, rolls, flat bread and crackers
  • Brown rice, wild rice or brown pasta
  • Grains such as barley, buckwheat, burghal, chia, corn, millet, oats, quinoa, rice, rye, semolina, sorghum, spelt and wheat

穀物食品 – 高纖維選擇

  • 高纖維早餐穀物食品,如天然穀片、全穀麥片和燕麥片
  • 高纖維(全麥、全穀或粗麥)麵包、麵包卷、扁麵包和米餅
  • 糙米、野生稻米或糙米意粉
  • 大麥、蕎麥、布格麥、奇亞籽、玉米、小米、燕麥、藜麥、稻米、 黑米、粗麵粉、高粱、斯佩爾特小麥和小麥之類的穀物

Beans (legumes)

All beans and peas are fibre rich and examples include: black-eyed beans, borlotti beans, butter beans, cannelini beans, chick peas, haricot beans, kidney beans, lentils, lima beans, mung beans, soy beans and split peas. Foods made from these such as hummus are fibre rich.

豆類(豆莢)

所有豆類和豌豆都富含纖維,例如:黑眼豆、博羅特豆、白腰豆、紅豆、雞子豆、四季豆、腰豆、扁豆、利馬豆、綠豆、大豆和馬豆。使用這些豆類製造的食物(如鷹嘴豆泥)都是富含纖維。

Nuts and seeds

All seeds such as flax, sunflower, sesame and poppy seeds, and all nuts such as almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts.

堅果和種籽

所有種籽(如亞麻籽、葵花籽、芝麻和罌粟籽)和所有堅果(如杏仁、 腰果、榛子、夏威夷果、花生、松子、開心果和核桃仁)


 

How much fibre should I have?

我應該吃多少纖維?

Aim for at least 25-30g of fibre each day. See the table below for the amount of fibre in different foods.

每天的目標是至少25–30克纖維不同食物的纖維量見下表。

 
HIGH FIBRE CHOICEFIBRE (g)LOW FIBRE CHOICEFIBRE (g)
1/2 cup cooked green or orange vegetables2.51 cup vegetable juice0
1 piece of fruit21 cup fruit juice0
1 slice grainy or wholemeal bread21 slice white bread1
1 cup cooked brown rice1.51 cup cooked white rice1
Breakfast cereal: 2 wheat biscuits or 3/4 cup rolled oats or untoasted muesli3.5+One bowl of white or refined cereal e.g. flakes of corn0.5 - 1
Beans (1/2 cup)7
Mixed nuts (1/4 cup)3


高纖維選擇纖維(克)低纖維選擇纖維(克)
½ 杯煮熟的綠色或橙色蔬菜1 杯蔬菜汁0
1塊水果21 杯果汁0
1片粗麥或全麥麵包21片白麵包1
1杯煮熟的糙米飯1杯煮熟的白米飯1
早餐穀類食品: 2塊小麥餅乾或¾杯燕麥片或未烤的穀片3½+一碗白穀類食品或精製穀類食品,如玉米片½–1
豆類(½杯)7
什錦堅果(1/4杯)3

To help you achieve 25-30g fibre each day, try the following:

  1. Have plenty of vegetables (aim for 5-6 serves every day)
  2. Choose at least two serves of fruit every day (with skin where possible)
  3. Choose high fibre cereal foods (wholemeal or wholegrain) more often than white or refined varieties
  4. Include beans, nuts and seeds regularly in your diet

為了幫助你達到每天25–30克纖維,不妨嘗試以下做法:

  1. 多吃蔬菜(每天嘗試吃5–6份)
  2. 每天至少選擇兩份水果(盡可能連皮吃)
  3. 多選擇高纖維穀類食品(全麥或全穀),而非白品種或精製品種
  4. 在飲食中包含經常食用豆類、堅果和種籽

 

Getting enough fibre each day

每天獲取充足的纖維

Choose at least 5-6 vegetable serves each day (plus the skin if edible) of fresh, frozen, dried or low salt canned vegetables.

每天選擇至少5–6份新鮮、冰凍、乾製或低鹽罐頭蔬菜 (如果蔬菜皮可以食用,最好連皮吃)。

What is a serve of vegetable?
何謂一份蔬菜?

    • Half a cup of cooked broccoli, spinach, carrots, pumpkin, sweet corn and peas

  • 半杯煮熟的西蘭花、菠菜、蘿蔔、南瓜、甜玉米和豌豆

    • One cup of green leafy or raw salad vegetables

  • 一杯綠葉蔬菜或生沙律蔬菜

    • Half a medium potato, sweet potato or one medium tomato

  • 半個中等大小的馬鈴薯、紅薯或一個中等大小的蕃茄

Limit your intake of fried vegetables such as potato chips or crisps
限制薯條或薯片等油炸蔬菜的攝取量


Choose at least two serves of fruit each day (plus the skin if possible). You can have fresh, stewed, frozen, dried or canned fruit in natural juice (not syrup).

每天至少選擇兩份水果(盡可能連皮吃)你可以吃新鮮水果、煨熟水果、冰凍水果、水果乾或天然果汁(非糖漿) 中的罐頭水果

What is a serve of fruit?
何謂一份水果?

  • One medium apple, banana, orange or pear
  • Two small apricots, kiwifruit or plums
  • One cup diced or canned fruit (no added sugar)
  • 一個中等大小的蘋果、香蕉、香橙或梨
  • 兩個小杏、奇異果或李子
  • 一杯水果丁或罐頭水果(未加糖)

    • 30g dried fruit (11/2 tablespoons of sultanas or 4 dried apricots)

  • 30克水果乾(1½湯匙的葡萄乾或4個杏子果乾)

Some fruits have long been used to keep bowels regular
有些水果一直都用來保持大便正常

Figs
無花果

Kiwifruit
奇異果

Prunes
西梅

Dates
紅棗


Choose high fibre cereal foods (wholemeal or wholegrain) more often than white or refined varieties.

多選擇高纖維穀類食品(全麥或全穀),而非白品種或精製品種。

Choose high fibre or wholegrain breakfast cereals
選擇高纖維或全穀早餐穀類食品

  • Oats, porridge, natural muesli, high fibre wheat or bran cereals
  • 燕麥、米粥、天然穀片、高纖維小麥或麥麩穀類食品

Add fibre to your favourite breakfast cereals

  • Sprinkle on nuts or seeds e.g. LSA (linseed, sunflower and almond)
  • Add 1–2 tablespoons of bran or flax seed
  • Mix your preferred cereal with a very high fibre breakfast cereal

給自己喜歡的早餐穀類食品中添加纖維

  • 灑上堅果或種籽,如 LSA (亞麻仁、葵花籽和杏仁)
  • 添加1–2湯匙麥麩或亞麻籽
  • 將自己喜歡的穀類食品與纖維含量很高的早餐穀類食品混在一起

Choose wholemeal bread or grainy bread, toast, rolls, pita bread, pasta or rice

  • Wholemeal or wholegrain bread, rolls, pita, lavish, mountain bread or dark rye breads
  • Brown pasta (or mix brown pasta with white pasta)
  • Brown or wild rice (or mix white rice with brown rice)
  • Wholemeal lasagna sheets
  • Wholemeal rice in stir frys, risottos and curries
  • Grainy crisp bread instead of white crackers

選擇全麥麵包或粗麥麵包、烤麵包、麵包卷、皮塔麵包、意粉或米飯

  • 全麥或全穀麵包、麵包卷、皮塔麵包、拉維斯麵包、高山麵包或黑麥 麵包
  • 糙麵意粉(或這將糙麵意粉和白意粉混在一起)
  • 糙米或野米(或者將白米和糙米混在一起)
  • 全麥千層麵
  • 在炒飯、燴飯和咖哩中使用全麥米
  • 粗麥脆麵包,而非白米餅

Add high fibre grains when cooking or preparing meals

  • Soups: add beans, lentils, split peas or barley
  • Salads: use quinoa, brown rice, wild rice, buckwheat or cracked wheat (burghal) for example tabouli
  • Baking:
    • Use wholemeal flour or oats instead of white flour, for example muffins, pikelets or making oat crumble toppings
    • When a well-risen product is required such as scones or cakes use half white flour mixed with half wholemeal flour
    • Use wholegrain bread crumbs instead of white for crumbing fish or chicken

做飯或備餐時添加高纖維穀物

  • 湯:添加豆、扁豆、馬豆或大麥
  • 沙律:使用藜麥、糙米、野米、蕎麥或碎麥(布格麥)做小麥色拉, 如中東沙律 tabouli
  • 焙烤:
    • 使用全麥麵粉或燕麥(而非白麵粉)烤鬆糕、薄烤餅或製作燕麥酥頂料
    • 若需要充分發起的產品做鬆餅或蛋糕,使用一半白麵粉和一半全麥麵粉混合
    • 給魚肉或雞肉裹上麵包屑時使用全麥麵包屑,而非白麵包屑


Include beans, nuts and seeds regularly in your diet

飲食中經常包括使用豆類、堅果和種籽

Breakfast

  • Sprinkle nuts and seeds on breakfast cereal
  • Try baked beans or peanut paste on high fibre toast

早餐

  • 給早餐穀類食品灑上堅果和種籽
  • 嘗試給高纖維多士塗上焙豆或花生醬

Cooking or preparing meals

  • Add lentils, whole barley or split peas to soups and meals such as lasagna, casseroles or stews, or choose dishes based on beans such as dahl
  • Add beans to pasta dishes such as spaghetti bolognese, burritos, chilli con carne or tacos

做飯或備餐

  • 煲湯時,和在千層面、砂鍋菜或燉菜等膳食中添加扁豆、大麥粒或馬豆,或者選擇豆菜等以豆類為主的菜肴, 如印度料理dahl
  • 給意大利肉醬面、墨西哥卷餅、墨西哥腰豆肉醬飯或墨西哥玉米餅之類的意粉菜肴添加豆類

Salads

Add canned beans, four-bean mix, chickpeas or toasted nuts

沙律

添加罐頭豆、什錦豆、鷹嘴豆或烤堅果

Snacks

  • Trail mix (unsalted nuts and dried fruit)
  • Popcorn – plain or lightly salted
  • Wholegrain crackers and hummus

零食

  • 什錦雜果(不加鹽的堅果和乾果)
  • 爆米花– 原味或略加鹽
  • 全谷米餅和鷹嘴豆泥


What about fluids?
流質呢?

Fibre and water work together to keep us regular. Without enough fluid, increasing fibre may result in constipation, so always have enough to drink each day.

纖維和水同樣重要,能夠使得我們大便正常。沒有足够的水份,增加纖維可能會造成便秘,因此每天一定要喝足够的流質。

What drinks should I choose?

Water is preferred over drinks with added sugar (such as soft drinks, cordials, sports and energy drinks) and fruit juice, as water has no calories and will not result in weight gain. Water is also preferred over diet soft drinks and fruit juice as the acidity of these drinks can break down the hard covering on our teeth called enamel.

我應該選擇甚麼飲料?

最好喝水,而非加糖飲料(如汽水、濃縮飲料、運動飲料和能量飲料) 和果汁,因為水不含熱量,不會造成體重增加。與减肥汽水和果汁相比,最好還是喝水,因為這些飲料的酸性可能會腐蝕覆蓋我們牙齒的珐琅質的硬層。

How much?

As a general rule aim for 1.5–2 litres of fluid per day (6–8 glasses) unless advised otherwise by your doctor. More fluid may be required in hot weather and when exercising.

喝多少水?

一般而言,除非醫生另有醫囑,嘗試每天喝1.5–2 公升 (6–8杯)流質。在天氣炎熱和運動時,可能需要喝更多的流質。

What about tea and coffee?

  • Tea and coffee can count as part of your fluid intake
  • Tea and coffee (or caffeine drinks) may need to be reduced if you have urinary incontinence. Discuss this with a continence health professional if you have any concerns

茶和咖啡呢?

  • 茶和咖啡可以算作流質攝取量的一部份
  • 如果你有尿失禁,可能就需要减少喝茶和咖啡 (或含咖啡因飲料)。如果你有任何擔憂,請與排便節制方面的健康專業人士諮詢討論此事。


Boosting your fibre: slowly does it
逐漸增加纖維量

  • Increase your fibre slowly. Try making one change per week to avoid gas, bloating, cramps and diarrhoea from building up fibre intake too quickly.
  • Plenty of fluids help the fibre work better, so drink more as you increase your fibre
  • 逐漸增加纖維量。每週作出少許改變,以避免過快增加纖維攝取量所造成的氣脹、腹脹、腹痛和腹瀉。
  • 多喝流質有助提高纖維功效,因此在增加纖維量時應多喝流質。

Fibre supplements

Try to avoid making up for a low fibre eating plan by relying mainly on fibre supplements or foods with concentrated sources of fibre such as bran or psyllium husk. These may give you enough fibre but you will miss out on the mixture of fibre which is needed to protect the gut. If you feel you need a fibre supplement and would like more information, talk to a continence health professional or Dietitian.

纖維補品

盡量避免主要依靠纖維補品或者含有麥麩或洋車前子可溶性植物纖維等濃縮纖維來源的食物來補充低纖維飲食計劃的不足。這些補品和食物可能會給你足够的纖維,但你可能會錯失保護胃腸所需要的各種纖維。如果你需要纖維補品並且希望瞭解更多情况,請向排便節制方面的健康專業人士或飲食學家諮詢。