Array ( [id] => 478 ) Factsheets in Constipation and Bowel Control · Continence Foundation of Australia
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Constipation and Bowel Control

便秘與 排便控制

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This fact sheet explains what constipation is and suggests some ideas for improvement and tells you where to get more help.

本資料單張說明甚麼是便秘,提出一些改善建議,告訴你何處可以獲得更多幫助。

What is constipation?

Constipation is a common disorder where bowel actions ('poo' or faeces) are not easily and/or less frequently passed. Symptoms of constipation include:

  • Hard stools
  • Excessive straining
  • Being unable to pass faecal matter and/or feeling as though your bowels are not completely emptied

甚麼是便秘?

便秘是指大便(糞便)不容易排出並且/或者不經常排出的一種常見失調症。便秘的症狀包括:

  • 大便發硬
  • 需要過度用力
  • 無法排出糞便並且/或者感覺好像沒有排淨

What does being 'Regular' mean?

  • You can 'hold on' to your bowel action until you get to the toilet
  • Once you are sitting on the toilet you can start a bowel action
  • You feel that you have emptied your bowel fully
  • Going to the toilet anywhere between 3 times a day to 3 times a week.
  • Being 'regular' can vary from person to person.

‘正常’是指甚麼?

  • 在到厠所大便之前,你可以‘控制’得住
  • 一旦坐在馬桶上,你就能够開始大便
  • 感覺自己已經完全排淨大便
  • 上厠所大便的次數在每天3次到每周3次之間
  • 所謂‘正常’可能因人而異。

What can cause constipation?

  • Insufficient fibre intake in the diet
  • Insufficient daily fluid intake
  • Insufficient exercise
  • Prescription and/or over-the-counter pain relief medications or chronic health conditions
  • Pregnancy and childbirth
  • Bowel disorders and/or damage that require further medical investigation
  • Prolapse - a sagging and/or collapsing of internal organs which interferes with bladder and bowel control

甚麼有可能會造成便秘?

  • 飲食中纖維攝取量不够
  • 每天的流質攝取量不够
  • 不够運動
  • 服用止痛處方藥物以及/或者櫃檯藥物或者慢性病
  • 懷孕和生産
  • 需要醫生進一步調查的腸道疾病及/或損傷
  • 脫垂—內部器官鬆弛以及/或者脫落妨礙大小便控制

What should your 'poo' look like?

Your poo should be light or dark brown, sausage-shaped, soft but firm, easy to pass and with minimal odour. Aim to have a type 3 or type 4 bowel action.

大便應該是甚麼樣的?

大便應該呈淺褐色或深褐色,香腸狀,柔軟但結實,容易排出,臭味極少。嘗試達到第3類或第4類大便。

Common Bowel Problems

Faecal Impaction - When constipation causes faeces to pack the intestine (digestive tract) so tightly that your normal pushing action in the toilet is not strong enough to push the faeces out.

Faecal Incontinence (sometimes referred to as 'soiling') - This is the accidental loss of liquid or solid faeces. This can be due to the bowel (which stores the faeces) being too full, but this may be only one of the causes. Uncontrolled flatus ('wind') is often considered evidence of faecal incontinence.

Haemorrhoids (sometimes referred to as 'piles') - This can be the result of straining to have a bowel movement. This strain (similar to heavy lifting) can damage the rectum's veins. This can cause bleeding, soreness and itching.

Rectal Prolapse - This occurs when long-term straining causes a small amount of bowel lining to push out from the anus, which is a ring of muscle that opens and closes when we pass a bowel motion. 

常見大腸問題

糞便嵌塞 – 便秘是指糞便緊塞在腸道中,上厠所時正常排便動作力量不足,無法將糞便推出。

大便失禁 (有時稱爲‘滲便’) – 這是指液態或固態糞便意外漏出。這可能是因爲大腸 (儲存糞便) 過滿,但這可能只是原因之一。無法控制的排氣 (‘放屁’)通常被認爲是大便失禁的迹象。

痔瘡 (有時稱爲‘痔’) – 這可能是大便時用力排便造成的。這種用力 (類似提舉重物)可能會損傷直腸血管。這可能會引起流血、疼痛和瘙癢。

直肠脱垂 – 这种情况的发生是因为长期过度用力导致小部分大肠壁被挤出肛门,肛门是我们排便时打开和关闭的一圈
肌肉。

How constipation affects bladder control

Constipation can cause accidential leakage from your bladder. An overfull bowel will cut down the volume of urine your bladder can hold and you will feel the need to go to the toilet often and in a hurry.

便秘如何影響小便控制

便秘可引起膀胱意外漏尿。大腸過滿會减少膀胱能够存有的尿量,你會經常覺得要上厠所,而且尿急。

Here are five ways to keep your bladder and bowel healthy and prevent constipation:

Eat well to keep your bowels regular and to have a healthy body weight

Eat a healthy diet high in fibre (at least 30g per day).

Drink well to prevent constipation and bladder irritation

Drink 1.5 -2 Litres(6-8 glasses) of fluid each day unless advised otherwise by your doctor. Fluid is water, fruit juice, tea, coffee, milk, soup, jellies and icecream.

Exercise daily to prevent constipation and keep a healthy body weight

Keep your pelvic floor strong for good bladder and bowel control

Request a pelvic floor muscle exercise leaflet by calling the National Continence Helpline 1800 33 00 66.

Toileting habits - Go to the toilet as soon as you need to and empty your bowel fully. Remember to relax.

以下是保持膀胱和大腸健康及防止便秘的五種方法:

良好飲食,保持大便正常和健康體重

飲食健康,富含纖維(每天至少30克)。

多喝流質防止便秘和膀胱刺激

除非醫生另有醫囑,每天喝1.5 –2公升(6-8杯)流質。流質包括水、果汁、茶、咖啡、牛奶、湯、啫喱和冰淇淋。

每天做運動,防止便秘並且保持健康體重

保持骨盆底強壯,有助大小便控制

致電全國排便節制專線(National Continence Helpline)1800 33 00 66,索取一份骨盆底肌鍛鍊宣傳單。

如廁習慣 – 一有需要就上廁所,排淨大便。記得要放鬆。

Check your toileting postion:

  • Your knees should be raised slightly above the level of your hips
  • A small footstool might be needed to get you into the best position
  • See the diagram below for further help

檢查你的如廁姿勢:

  • 膝蓋應略微抬高,高於臀部水平
  • 可能需要一個小腳凳
  • 若需要進一步了解,請參閱下圖

Laxatives

  • Laxatives are medicines that will help loosen the bowel motion to prevent blockages and straining.
  • Talk to your doctor about using these.
  • Generally, laxatives should only be taken for short periods of time.

瀉劑

  • 泻药可以帮助促进肠道蠕动以防止堵塞和过于用力。
  • 請向醫生諮詢使用這些藥物的情況
  • 一般而言,瀉劑只應短期服用。

There are three types of laxatives:

  • Bulking Agents - These increase the bulk of the stool (faeces). Drinking at least 6-8 glasses of fluid daily is essential.
  • Lubricant Laxatives - These soften the faeces and make them easier to pass.
  • Stimulant/Irritant Laxatives - These make the bowel more active in moving faeces through the bowel.

瀉劑有三種類型:

  • 成形劑 ‐ 這些瀉劑增加大便(糞便)量。務必要每天至少喝6‐8杯流質。
  • 潤滑性瀉劑 ‐ 這些瀉劑軟化糞便,使糞便更容易排出。
  • 刺激性瀉劑 ‐ 這些瀉劑讓大腸更積極地移動大便,使大便通過大腸。

If constipation is severe or continuing, go to your Doctor.

如果便秘嚴重或持續,請去看醫生。

Who can help?

The first step to improving your bowel control is to have a full continence assessment carried out by a health professional.

誰可以幫助?

改善大便控制的第一步就是請健康專業人士作出全面的排便節制評估。

For more information

There are a range of health professionals who can help you deal with constipation.

  • Visit your GP or specialist
  • Telephone a Continence Nurse Advisor on the National Continence Helpline 1800 33 00 66
  • To use an interpreter, ring the Translating and Interpreting Service (TIS) on 13 14 50

有關詳情

有一系列健康專業人士可以幫助你應對便秘。

  • 看你的GP或專科醫生
  • 致電全國排便節制專線1800 33 00 66諮詢排便節制護士顧問
  • 若要使用口譯員,請致電翻譯與傳譯服務(TIS),電話:13 14 50