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Bedwetting in childhood

儿童尿床

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What Is Bed-Wetting?

Bed-wetting (also called nocturnal enuresis) is when the bladder empties while a child is asleep. This can happen every so often, or every night.

Bed-wetting is common. About one in every five children in Australia wets the bed. Bed-wetting can run in families and is more common in boys than girls before the age of nine years. It can be upsetting for the child and stressful for the whole family. The good news is that you can get help.

什么是尿床?

尿床(也叫作夜间遗尿症)是指儿童在睡眠时排尿。这种情况可能经常发生,甚至每晚都发生。

尿床很普遍。澳大利亚大概每5个儿童中就有1个尿床。尿床可能有家族性,多发生在9岁前,男童比女童常见。这种情况可能会令尿床的儿童感到难过,并令全家人都感到紧张和压力。幸而你可以就此获得帮助。

What Causes Bed-Wetting?

Wetting the bed is caused by a mix of three things:

  • the body making a large amount of urine through the night;
  • a bladder that can only store a small amount of urine at night; and
  • not being able to fully wake up from sleep.

Children who wet the bed are not lazy or being naughty. Some illnesses are linked with bed-wetting, but most children who wet the bed do not have major health problems.

Day-time control of the bladder comes before night-time dryness. Most children are dry through the day by the age of three years and at night by school age. However, this can vary, and children may have accidents every so often, both day and night, up until they are seven or eight years of age.

尿床的原因是什么?

尿床是由三个因素共同导致的:

  • 身体在夜间产生大量尿液;
  • 膀胱在夜间只能储存少量尿液;以及
  • 儿童无法从睡眠中完全醒过来。

尿床的儿童并非懒惰或不听话。尿床与某些疾病有关,但大多数尿床的儿童没有严重的疾病。

先控制白天排尿,再处理夜间尿床。大多数儿童到3岁白天就不再尿湿裤子,到上学的年龄夜晚就不再尿床。但是,这种情况会有改变,儿童白天夜晚都经常有可能出现意外遗尿,直至7岁或8岁。

When Should You Seek Help For Bed-Wetting?

It is best to seek help from a health professional with special training in children’s bladder problems, such as a doctor, physiotherapist or continence nurse advisor. They can help children with their bed-wetting from when the child is about six years of age. Before this time it can sometimes be hard to get the child to be helpful. However, in some cases it might be wise to seek help sooner, such as when:

  • the child who has been dry suddenly starts wetting at night;
  • the wetting is frequent after school age;
  • the wetting bothers the child or makes them upset or angry; or
  • the child wants to become dry.

你何时需要寻求关于尿床的帮助?

最好向在儿童排尿失常方面受过特别训练的专业医护人员寻求帮助,如医生、理疗师或排便科护士。他们可以从儿童6岁左右起帮助他们解决尿床问题。这个年龄前的儿童往往不愿配合。但是,在某些情况下尽早寻求帮助是明智的,如当:

  • 一直没有遗尿的儿童突然开始在夜晚尿床;
  • 学龄后频繁尿床;
  • 尿床令儿童感到困扰、令他们难过或生气;或者
  • 尿床的儿童不想再遗尿。

Can Bladder Control Through The Day Be A Problem?

Some children who wet the bed at night also have problems with how their bladder works through the day. They may go to the toilet too few or too many times, need to rush to the toilet in a hurry, have trouble emptying out all the urine or have bowel problems. Unless the child has wet underwear, families often do not know about these other bladder and bowel control problems. New day-time wetting by a child who is toilet trained should be discussed with a doctor.

在白天控制排尿会成为问题吗?

有些夜晚尿床的儿童白天排尿也有问题。他们可能甚少或过多地去厕所,急需上厕所,排尿不尽或排便失常。除非孩子尿湿了内裤,否则家人通常不知道孩子有其它大小便控制失常。如果受过厕所训练的孩子开始出现白天尿湿,就要和医生讨论。

What Can Be Done About Bed-Wetting?

Many children do stop wetting in their own time with no help. Most often, if wetting is still very frequent after the age of eight or nine years, the problem does not get better by itself. There are many ways to treat bed-wetting. A health professional will begin by checking the child to make sure there are no physical causes and to find out how their bladder works through the day. Then, there are a few ways to treat bed-wetting that are most often used:

  • Night alarms that go off when the child wets the bed. These work by teaching the child to wake up to the feeling of a full bladder. The alarm is used either on the bed or in the child’s underpants. The results are best when the child wants to be dry, wets very often, has help from a parent through the night, and uses the alarm every night for several months. Some children become dry using an alarm but later start to wet again. Alarms can work again after this relapse.
  • Drugs that change how active the bladder is or cut down how much urine is made through the night can be prescribed by a doctor. These drugs can be used to help the bladder work better at night. Drugs alone don’t often cure bed-wetting. Bladder function must be improved or bed-wetting may come back when the drug is stopped.

针对尿床可以做些什么?

很多儿童到了一定时间无需帮助就能停止尿床。通常,如果在8岁或9岁之后尿床仍非常频繁,这个问题就不会自己得到改善。有很多处理尿床的方法。专业医护人员先会为儿童做检查,确保没有身体方面的原因,并且了解他们白天的排尿情况。然后采取一些最常用的尿床处理方法:

  • 夜间闹钟会在儿童尿床时响起。这是通过训练儿童在感觉膀胱涨满时醒来而发挥作用。将闹钟放在床上或儿童的内裤里。用闹钟效果最好的情况是:儿童自己不想再遗尿、经常性遗尿,以及父母在夜间帮助叫醒。闹钟要每晚使用,连续几个月。有一些儿童在使用闹钟之后不再遗尿,但后来又再次尿床。复发后使用闹钟仍然有效。
  • 用药物改变膀胱兴奋性,或减少夜间产尿量。处方要由医生开写。这些药物可以用来帮助膀胱在夜间更好地工作。但只靠药物通常不能治愈尿床,还必须改善膀胱功能,否则,停止用药时尿床可能会复发。

What Can Parents Do?

  • Seek help from a health professional with special training in children’s bladder problems, such as a doctor, physiotherapist or continence nurse advisor.
  • Watch for constipation as this can make the bladder problem worse. Seek medical help if it is an ongoing problem.
  • If your child is using a bed-wetting alarm, get up when it goes off and help to wake them up and change their clothes or sheet. Make sure there is enough light at night so it is easy to get to the toilet.

There are some things which do NOT help:

  • DO NOT punish for wet beds.
  • DO NOT shame the child in front of friends or family.
  • DO NOT lift the child at night to toilet them. This may cut down on some wet beds, but it does not help the child learn to be dry.
  • DO NOT try to fix bed-wetting when other family members are going through a stressful time.

父母可以做些什么?

  • 向在儿童排尿失常方面受过特别训练的专业医护人员寻求帮助,如医生、理疗师或排便科护士。
  • 留意孩子是否有便秘,因为便秘可令排尿问题更严重。如有持续便秘就要寻求医疗帮助。
  • 如果你的孩子使用尿床闹钟,当闹钟响时,你也要起床叫醒孩子,并帮助换衣服或床单。要确保夜晚有足够灯光令上厕所较容易。

有一些做法是没有帮助的:

  • 不要因为尿床而进行惩罚。
  • 不要在朋友或家人面前羞辱孩子。
  • 不要在夜晚给孩子把尿。这可能会减少尿床的次数,但对孩子学习不再遗尿没有帮助。
  • 不要在其他家庭成员正在承受重大压力的时期尝试解决尿床问题。

Seek Help

Qualified nurses are available if you call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66* (Monday to Friday, between 8.00am to 8.00pm Australian Eastern Standard Time) for free:

  • Information;
  • Advice; and
  • Leaflets.

If you have difficulty speaking or understanding English you can access the Helpline through the free Telephone Interpreter Service on 13 14 50. The phone will be answered in English, so please name the language you speak and wait on the phone. You will be connected to an interpreter who speaks your language. Tell the interpreter you wish to call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66. Wait on the phone to be connected and the interpreter will assist you to speak with a continence nurse advisor. All calls are confidential.

Visit bladderbowel.gov.au or continence.org.au/other-languages

* Calls from mobile telephones are charged at applicable rates.

寻求帮助

如果你致电国家排便节制热线,有资质的护士会接听你的电话1800 33 00 66*(周一至周五,澳大利亚东部标准时间8:00am—8:00pm)。

  • 信息;
  • 建议;及
  • 资料册。

如果你在讲英语或者理解上有困难,你可以通过拨打13 14 50获取免费电话传译服务以接通国家排便节制热线。电话会用英语接通,因此请说明你要讲的语言并且不要挂机。你会被连接到一个讲你母语的传译员。告知传译员你想要致电国家排便节制热线,电话是1800 33 00 66。待电话接通后传译员会帮助你与排便节制护理顾问对话,所有的来电均保密。

请登陆:bladderbowel.gov.au或者continence.org.au/other-languages

* 用手机打出会收取相应费用。