Array ( [id] => 114 ) Factsheets in The Prostate and Bladder Problems · Continence Foundation of Australia
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The Prostate and Bladder Problems

前列腺與排尿失常

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The prostate is a gland that only men have. It is about the size of a walnut and sits below the neck of the bladder, surrounding the bladder outlet (the urethra). The prostate makes a milky fluid, which is part of semen and feeds the sperm.

As men age, the prostate gland gets bigger. This happens over many years and for some men this can cause bladder problems.

Poor bladder control can also happen due to other health issues. Men with poor bladder control can be upset and embarrassed by this problem. If you have changes in your bladder control, or concerns about your prostate gland, talk to your doctor or continence advisor.

前列腺是男性特有的一種腺體。它位於膀胱頸之下,類似核桃般大小,環繞著膀胱出口(尿道)。前列腺製造乳狀液體,這些液體是精液的一部份,並提供營養給精子。

隨著男性年齡增大,前列腺越來越大。這種情況一般會多年持續發展,對於一些男性而言會引起排尿障礙。

排尿控制欠佳還會由其他健康問題引起。排尿控制欠佳的男性會因為這個問題感到難過及尷尬。如果你感覺排尿控制有變化,或擔心你的前列腺有問題,請向醫生或排便科顧問諮詢。

What are some common prostate problems?

  1. Prostatitis is swelling and soreness of the prostate gland and may be due to a bladder infection. It is more common in young men.
  2. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is when the prostate gets gradually larger, usually starting in middle age. About one in four men will need surgery for this problem (BPH does not lead to cancer).
  3. Prostate Cancer is often found before you have any warning signs. Your doctor may find it with a blood test (called a PSA) and a check of your prostate. It is the most common cancer in men, and you are more likely to get it as you age. However it is one of the most readily treated cancers.

有哪些常見的前列腺疾患?

  1. 前列腺腫大及前列腺脹痛,並且可能由膀胱感染引起。這種情況較常見於年輕男性。
  2. 良性前列腺肥大(BPH)是指前列腺逐漸增大,通常在中年開始。大概四分一男性需要接受手術治療這個問題(BPH不會導致癌變)。
  3. 前列腺癌的發現通常在身體出現任何早期徵兆之前。醫生可能透過一種血液檢驗(被稱為前列腺特異抗原(PSA)測定)及檢查你的前列腺而發現癌症。這是男性最常見的癌症,並且年紀越大患病的機會越大。不過前列腺癌是最容易治療的癌症之一。

How do I know if I have a prostate problem?

If you have one or more of these issues, you may have a prostate problem:

  • trouble starting the flow of urine;
  • slow urine stream once started;
  • needing to pass urine more often through the day or night;
  • leaking after passing urine, or between visits to the toilet;
  • needing to pass urine again soon after going to the toilet;
  • feeling an urgent need to pass urine;
  • burning or pain when passing urine;
  • blood in urine; and
  • feeling that the bladder is not fully empty after going to the toilet.

Some of these problems may not be due to the prostate. For instance, some medicines may cause the bladder to store up urine. Your doctor or continence advisor can help you find the cause of your problem.

我如何得知自己是否有前列腺疾患?

如果你有一種或多種以下情況,就可能有前列腺疾患:

  • 排尿初起有困難;
  • 尿流不暢;
  • 日間或夜間需要更頻繁地排尿;
  • 排尿後,或兩次去廁所之間漏尿;
  • 去廁所後不久又要排尿;
  • 感覺尿急;
  • 排尿時灼熱或疼痛;
  • 尿中帶血;以及
  • 去廁所後覺得膀胱沒有完全排空。

這些問題有時可能與前列腺無關。例如,有些藥物會令膀胱積聚尿液。你的醫生或排便科顧問可以幫你找出問題的起因。

How can my prostate cause bladder problems

Blocking of the urethra (the urine tube): As the prostate grows larger, it may block the bladder outlet and stop the bladder from emptying. In some cases, urine may get stored up until it starts to leak out. If this happens, see a doctor straight away.

An overactive bladder can be caused by the bladder working extra hard to get past a blockage. An overactive bladder can tighten without your control, causing an urgent need to pass urine. After surgery to ease the blockage you may still have an urgent need to pass urine, and it could get worse for a few weeks, until the bladder goes back to normal.

Surgery for prostate problems can damage the muscle and nerves of the bladder outlet in a few cases. This can cause poor bladder control. If it occurs it is almost always short-lived, though major surgery for prostate cancer can lead to long term bladder control problems.

我的前列腺如何會引起排尿障礙?

堵塞尿道(排尿管):隨著前列腺增大,可能堵塞膀胱出口,阻止膀胱排空。在一些情況下,尿液可能會積聚直至漏出來。如果出現這種情況,要儘快去看醫生。

膀胱過度活躍可能是由膀胱竭力將尿液擠出堵塞的尿道所致。過度活躍的膀胱會不受你的控制而收縮,導致急需排尿。透過手術緩解堵塞之後,你可能仍然感到急需排尿,而且情況可能會在數周內變得更壞,直到膀胱恢復正常。

手術治療前列腺疾患在個別情況下會損傷膀胱出口的肌肉及神經。這會導致排尿控制失常。如果出現這種情況,通常只會持續很短時間,但治療前列腺癌的大手術會引致長期的排尿控制問題。

How can poor bladder control be treated?

First, your doctor or continence advisor will want to look for the causes of your poor bladder control, such as prostate disease, infection, diabetes or some medicines.

There are a few ways that poor bladder control due to prostate disease can be treated.

1. Check up with your doctor

After a talk with your doctor, you may feel that you do not need any treatment. Poor bladder control can get better with time, or with simple changes to your daily habits See the brochure 'Good Bladder Habits for Everyone'.

2. Medicines

There are a number of medicines that can help with bladder control. Ask your doctor about these.

3. Prostate Surgery

If your prostate is the problem, then surgery can remove all or part of the gland. The type of surgery will depend on the size of the prostate gland.

4. Bladder Training

A program of bladder training can help the bladder to hold more urine without leaks or urgent feelings, even for those with an overactive bladder.

5. Pelvic Floor Muscle Training

Pelvic floor muscle training builds up the muscles that control how well the bladder and bowel work. Learn how to train your muscles before surgery and start as soon as you can after surgery (See the leaflet “Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Men”).

6. Continence Products

There is a wide range of continence products to help cope with urine leaks (See the leaflet “Continence Products”).

Make sure you know enough about what the problem is, what treatments there are, how well they work, and what might go wrong, so that you can choose the treatment that is best for you, with your doctor’s help.

如何治療欠佳的排尿控制?

首先,你的醫生或排便科顧問會嘗試查出你欠佳的排尿控制的起因,如前列腺病,感染,糖尿病或一些藥物。

有一些方法可以治療由前列腺病引起的欠佳的排尿控制。

1. 請醫生檢查

跟醫生討論後,你可能覺得不需要接受任何治療。欠佳的排尿控制會隨著時間,或在對日常生活習慣作出簡單改變後好轉(請查閱資料單張“每個人都要有的良好排尿習慣”)。

2. 藥物

有一些藥物有助於排尿控制。請向你的醫生查詢。

3. 前列腺手術

如果你的前列腺是問題所在,可以做手術切除全部或部份腺體。手術類型取決於前列腺的大小。

4. 排尿鍛練

排尿鍛練計劃有助於膀胱儲存更多尿液而不會漏尿或有尿急的感覺,甚至對那些膀胱過分活躍的人士亦 有幫助。

5. 骨盆底肌肉鍛練

骨盆底肌肉鍛練增強控制順利排尿及排便的肌肉。手術前瞭解如何鍛練這些肌肉,並於手術後儘快開始鍛練(請查閱資料單張“男性骨盆底肌肉鍛練”)。

6. 排便節制產品

有一系列排便節制產品可以幫助處理漏尿(請查閱資料單張“排便節制產品”)。

確保你對問題所在、有哪些治療方法、各種方法的效果如何,以及可能有甚麼差錯有充分的瞭解。這樣你就可以在醫生的幫助下選擇最適合你的治療方法。

Seek help

Qualified nurses are available if you call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66* (Monday to Friday, between 8.00am to 8.00pm Australian Eastern Standard Time) for free:

  • Information;
  • Advice; and
  • Leaflets.

If you have difficulty speaking or understanding English you can access the Helpline through the free Telephone Interpreter Service on 13 14 50. The phone will be answered in English, so please name the language you speak and wait on the phone. You will be connected to an interpreter who speaks your language. Tell the interpreter you wish to call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66. Wait on the phone to be connected and the interpreter will assist you to speak with a continence nurse advisor. All calls are confidential.

Visit bladderbowel.gov.au or continence.org.au/other-languages

* Calls from mobile telephones are charged at applicable rates.

尋求幫助

如果你致電國家排便節制熱線,有資質的護士會接聽你的電話1800 33 00 66* (週一至週五,澳大利亞東部標準時間8:00am—8:00pm)。

  • 信息;
  • 建議;及
  • 資料單張。

如果你在講英語或者理解上有困難,你可以透過撥打13 14 50獲取免費電話傳譯服務以接通國家排便節制熱線。電話會用英語接通,因此請說明你要講的語言並且不要掛機。你會被連接到一個講你母語的傳譯員。告知傳譯員你想要致電國家排便節制熱線,電話是1800 33 00 66。待電話接通後傳譯員會幫助你與排便節制護理顧問對話,所有的來電均保密。

請登陸:bladderbowel.gov.au或者continence.org.au/other-languages

* 用手機打出會收取相應費用。