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Pelvic Floor Muscle Training For Women

女性骨盆底肌肉鍛練

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What are the pelvic floor muscles?

The floor of the pelvis is made up of layers of muscle and other tissues. These layers stretch like a hammock from the tailbone at the back, to the pubic bone in front.

A woman’s pelvic floor muscles support her bladder, womb (uterus) and bowel (colon). The urine tube (front passage), the vagina and the back passage all pass through the pelvic floor muscles. Your pelvic floor muscles help you to control your bladder and bowel. They also help sexual function. It is vital to keep your pelvic floor muscles strong.

甚麼是骨盆底肌肉?

骨盆底是由多層肌肉及其他組織構成的。這些肌肉及組織像吊床一樣,從背後的尾骨延伸至前面的恥骨。

女性的骨盆底肌肉支撐其膀胱﹑子宮及大腸(結腸)。尿道(尿道口),陰道及肛門都穿過骨盆底肌層。你的骨盆底肌肉幫助你控制大小便。它們亦有助於性功能。保持骨盆底肌強而有力十分重要。

 

Pelvic Floor Muscle

 

Pelvic Floor Muscle

Why should i do pelvic floor muscle training?

Women of all ages need to have strong pelvic floor muscles.

Pelvic floor muscles can be made weaker by:

  • not keeping them active;
  • being pregnant and having babies;
  • constipation;
  • being overweight;
  • heavy lifting;
  • coughing that goes on for a long time (such as smoker’s cough, bronchitis or asthma); and
  • growing older.

Women with stress incontinence – that is, women who wet themselves when they cough, sneeze or are active – will find pelvic floor muscle training can help in getting over this problem.

For pregnant women, pelvic floor muscle training will help the body cope with the growing weight of the baby. Healthy, fit muscles before the baby is born will mend more easily after the birth.

After the birth of your baby, you should begin pelvic floor muscle training as soon as you can. Always try to “brace” your pelvic floor muscles (squeeze up and hold) each time before you cough, sneeze or lift the baby. This is called having “the knack”.

As women grow older, the pelvic floor muscles need to stay strong because hormone changes after menopause can affect bladder control. As well  as this, the pelvic floor muscles change and may get weak. A pelvic floor muscle training plan can help to lessen the effects of menopause on pelvic support and bladder control.

Pelvic floor muscle training may also help women who have the urgent need to pass urine more often (called urge incontinence).

我為什麼需要做骨盆底肌肉鍛練?

女性在任何年齡都需要強而有力的骨盆底肌肉。

以下原因會令骨盆底肌肉變弱:

  • 沒有保持這些肌肉活躍;
  • 懷孕及生孩子;
  • 便秘;
  • 過度肥胖;
  • 提舉重物;
  • 長期持續性咳嗽(如吸煙者的咳嗽,患支氣管炎或哮喘);以及
  • 年紀越來越大。

有壓力性大小便失禁的女性—也就是咳嗽,打噴嚏或做運動時會尿濕褲子的女性—會發現骨盆底肌肉鍛練可有助於解決這個問題。

對於孕婦,骨盆底肌肉鍛練有助於身體承受胎兒重量不斷增加。產前肌肉強健,產後就比較容易恢復。

你應該在產後儘快開始骨盆底肌肉鍛練。每次咳嗽,打噴嚏或抱嬰兒之前要總是儘量將你的骨盆底肌肉“繃緊”(向上收緊並持續下去)。這被稱為 “竅門”。

隨著女性年齡增大,骨盆底肌肉需要保持強壯,因為絕經之後的荷爾蒙變化會影響排尿控制。此外,骨盆底肌肉會發生變化,並可能變弱。骨盆底肌肉鍛練計劃有助於減少絕經對骨盆底支撐力及排尿控制的影響。

骨盆底肌肉鍛練對於經常因尿急需要排尿(稱為緊迫性失禁)的女性同樣有幫助。

Where are my pelvic floor muscles?

The first thing to do is to find out which muscles you need to train.

  1. Sit or lie down with the muscles of your thighs, buttocks and stomach relaxed.
  2. Squeeze the ring of muscle around the back passage as if you are trying to stop passing wind. Now relax this muscle. Squeeze and let go a couple of times until you are sure you have found the right muscles. Try not to squeeze your buttocks.
  3. When sitting on the toilet to empty your bladder, try to stop the stream of urine, then start it again. Do this to learn which muscles are the right ones to use – but only once a week. Your bladder may not empty the way it should if you stop and start your stream more often than that.

If you don’t feel a distinct “squeeze and lift” of your pelvic floor muscles, or if you can’t slow your stream of urine as talked about in Point 3, ask for help from your doctor, physiotherapist, or continence nurse. They will help you to get your pelvic floor muscles working right.

Women with very weak pelvic floor muscles can benefit from pelvic floor muscle training.

我的骨盆底肌肉位於哪裡?

首先要找出你需要鍛練哪些肌肉。

  1. 坐下或躺下,放鬆大腿,臀部及腹部的肌肉。
  2. 收緊肛門周圍的環形肌肉,就像你正盡力忍着不排氣一樣。然後放鬆這塊肌肉。收緊及放鬆數次,直到確定你已經找到正確的肌肉為止。儘量不要收緊臀部。
  3. 坐在馬桶上小便時,試着中斷尿流,然後重新開始排尿。通過這樣做來瞭解該用哪些肌肉—但只能每星期做一次。如果中止後重新開始排尿超過一次,你的膀胱可能不會以應有的方式排空。

如果你沒有明顯感覺到骨盆底肌肉“收緊及提起”,或者如果你不能像第3點提到的那樣減慢排尿,就要向你的醫生,理療師,或排便科護士尋求幫助。他們會幫你令你的骨盆底肌肉正常運作。

骨盆底肌肉非常弱的女性將得益於骨盆底肌肉鍛練。

How do i do pelvic floor muscle training?

Now that you can feel the muscles working, you can:

  • Squeeze and draw in the muscles around your back passage and your vagina at the same time. Lift them UP inside. You should have a sense of “lift” each time you squeeze your pelvic floor muscles. Try to hold them strong and tight as you count to 8. Now, let them go and relax. You should have a distinct feeling of “letting go”.
  • Repeat “squeeze and lift” and let go. It is best to rest for about 8 seconds in between each lift up of the muscles. If you can’t hold for 8, just hold for as long as you can.
  • Repeat this “squeeze and lift” as many times as you can, up to a limit of 8 to 12 squeezes.
  • Try to do three sets of 8 to 12 squeezes each, with a rest in between.
  • Do this whole training plan (three sets of 8 to 12 squeezes) each day while lying down, sitting or standing.

While doing pelvic floor muscle training:

  • keep breathing;
  • only squeeze and lift;
  • do NOT tighten your buttocks; and
  • keep your thighs relaxed.

我如何做骨盆底肌肉鍛練?

既然你可以感覺到肌肉在運動,你就可以:

  • 同時收緊並向內收起肛門及陰道周圍的肌肉。將這些肌肉向內向上提。每次收緊骨盆底肌肉時,你應該有“提起”的感覺。儘量一邊用力保持收緊一邊數到8。然後放鬆這些肌肉並讓自己鬆弛下來。你應該有明顯的“放鬆”感覺。
  • 重覆“收緊及提起”然後放鬆。最好在每次提起肌肉之間休息8秒左右。如果你收緊不能堅持數到8,只需量力而為。
  • 儘量多次重覆這種“收緊及提起”鍛練,每組最多收緊8至12次。
  • 儘量做3組8至12次收緊,每組之間要休息。
  • 每天在躺下、坐下或站立時做完整套鍛練計劃(3組8至12次收緊)。

進行骨盆底肌肉鍛練時:

  • 保持正常呼吸;
  • 只收緊及提起;
  • 不要繃緊臀部;以及
  • 保持大腿放鬆。

Do your pelvic floor muscle training well

Fewer good squeezes are better than a lot of half hearted ones! If you are not sure that you are doing the squeezes right, or if you do not see a change in symptoms after 3 months, ask for help from your doctor, physiotherapist, or continence nurse.

認真進行骨盆底肌肉鍛練

認真地做幾次收緊鍛練比馬馬虎虎地做很多次效果好!如果你不確定你的收緊鍛練做得是否正確,或者3個月之後症狀未改變,就要向你的醫生,理療師,或排便科護士尋求幫助。

Make the training part of your daily life

Once you have learnt how to do pelvic floor muscle squeezes, you should do them often. Every day is best. You should give each set of squeezes your full focus. Make a regular time to do your pelvic floor muscle squeezes. This might be after going to the toilet, when having a drink, or when lying in bed.

Other things you can do to help your pelvic floor muscles:

  • Use “the knack” - that is, always try to “brace” your pelvic floor muscles (by squeezing up and holding) each time before you cough, sneeze or lift anything.
  • Share the lifting of heavy loads.
  • Eat fruit and vegetables and drink 1.5 - 2 litres of fluid per day.
  • Don’t strain when using your bowels.
  • Ask your doctor about hay fever, asthma and bronchitis to ease sneezing and coughing.
  • Keep your weight within the right range for your height and age.

令鍛練成為你日常生活的一部份

你一旦學會了如何做骨盆底肌肉收緊鍛練,就要經常進行鍛練。最好是每天都做。你應該全心全意地做每一組鍛練。你應該定時做骨盆底肌肉收緊鍛練,可以在去廁所之後,喝東西時,或者躺在床上時鍛練。

其他對加強骨盆底肌肉有幫助的做法:

  • 使用“竅門”—也就是每次咳嗽,打噴嚏或提舉任何物品之前總是儘量將你的骨盆底肌肉“繃緊”(收緊肌肉並持續下去)。
  • 與別人一起提舉重物。
  • 每天吃水果和蔬菜,飲用1.5—2升液體。
  • 排大便時不要過度用力。
  • 向你的醫生查詢花粉症、哮喘及支氣管炎的治療,以緩解打噴嚏及咳嗽。
  • 保持你的體重處於符合你的身高及年齡的範圍內。

Seek help

Qualified nurses are available if you call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66* (Monday to Friday, between 8.00am to 8.00pm Australian Eastern Standard Time) for free:

  • Information;
  • Advice; and
  • Leaflets.

If you have difficulty speaking or understanding English you can access the Helpline through the free Telephone Interpreter Service on 13 14 50. The phone will be answered in English, so please name the language you speak and wait on the phone. You will be connected to an interpreter who speaks your language. Tell the interpreter you wish to call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66. Wait on the phone to be connected and the interpreter will assist you to speak with a continence nurse advisor. All calls are confidential.

* Calls from mobile telephones are charged at applicable rates.

尋求幫助

如果你致電國家排便節制熱線,有資質的護士會接聽你的電話1800 33 00 66* (週一至週五,澳大利亞東部標準時間8:00am—8:00pm)。

  • 信息;
  • 建議;及
  • 資料單張。

如果你在講英語或者理解上有困難,你可以透過撥打13 14 50獲取免費電話傳譯服務以接通國家排便節制熱線。電話會用英語接通,因此請說明你要講的語言並且不要掛機。你會被連接到一個講你母語的傳譯員。告知傳譯員你想要致電國家排便節制熱線,電話是1800 33 00 66。待電話接通後傳譯員會幫助你與排便節制護理顧問對話,所有的來電均保密。

* 用手機打出會收取相應費用。