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Surgery For Bladder Control Problems In Women

治療女性排尿控制問題的手術

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Many women leak urine or wet themselves when they cough, sneeze or exercise (this is called stress incontinence). While there are many treatments to try first, some women need to have surgery for this problem.

很多女性在咳嗽,打噴嚏或做運動時會漏尿或尿濕褲子(稱為壓力性小便失禁)。雖然可以先試用很多治療方法,但有些女性需要通過手術解決這個問題。

What causes bladder control problems?

Bladder control problems are mainly caused by damage to pelvic floor muscles and the tissues that support them.

The floor of the pelvis is made up of layers of muscle and other tissues. These layers stretch like a hammock around the bladder and vagina from the tailbone at the back to the pubic bone in front. The pelvic floor muscles do a number of things, such as:

  • help to close off the bladder, the vagina (front passage) and the rectum (back passage); and
  • help to hold the bladder, the uterus (womb) and bowel in their proper place.

You can find out more about the pelvic floor muscles in the leaflet ”One in Three Women Who Ever Had a Baby Wet Themselves”. Bladder control problems can start when the pelvic floor muscles are made weaker by:

  • not keeping the muscles active;
  • being pregnant and giving birth;
  • constipation;
  • being overweight;
  • heavy lifting;
  • coughing that goes on for a long time (such as smoker’s cough or asthma); or
  • growing older.

甚麼引致排尿控制問題?

排尿控制問題主要由骨盆底肌肉及支撐它們的組織的損傷所引致。

骨盆底由多層肌肉及其他組織組成。這些肌肉及組織像吊床一樣,從背後的尾骨延伸至前面的恥骨,將膀胱及陰道夾在中間。骨盆底肌肉有多種作用,如:

  • 幫助關閉膀胱,陰道(陰道口)和直腸(肛門);及
  • 幫助將膀胱,子宮及直腸維持在適當位置。

你可從資料單張“三分一生過孩子的女性會小便失禁”中查閱更多關於骨盆底肌肉的資訊。當骨盆底肌肉由於以下原因變弱時,就會出現排尿控制失常:

  • 肌肉缺乏運動;
  • 懷孕及生孩子;
  • 便秘;
  • 超重;
  • 提舉重物;
  • 長期持續性咳嗽(如吸煙者的咳嗽或患哮喘);或
  • 年紀越來越大。

How can bladder control problems be treated?

The good news is that most women can control their bladder better by making their pelvic floor muscles stronger through training. The leaflet “Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Women” tells you how. Your doctor, physiotherapist, or continence nurse advisor will also be able to help.

如何治療排尿控制問題?

大多數女性可以透過鍛練加強骨盆底肌力來更好地控制排尿,這一點很令人寬慰。資料單張“女性骨盆底肌肉鍛練”告訴你如何進行鍛練。你的醫生,理療師,或排便科護士亦可幫助你。

When is surgery needed?

For a small number of women the more simple methods can fail to help with bladder control, and leaking urine can make day to day life difficult. In these cases surgery may be needed. Surgery should never be a first choice. All surgery has risks. You must discuss these risks with your surgeon.

在甚麼情況下需要做手術?

對於少數女性而言,許多較簡單的方法可能無助於排尿控制,而漏尿會令日常生活變得困難。這類案例可能需要做手術。切勿將手術視為第一選擇。任何手術都有風險。你必須跟外科醫生討論這些風險。

What should you ask your surgeon?

Before agreeing to surgery, you should talk about it fully with your surgeon. Make a list of questions that you want to ask. These could cover:

  • why this type of surgery has been chosen for you;
  • how well will it work;
  • what are the details of the surgery;
  • what are the problems that could occur, both short and long term;
  • what sort of scar will be left, what sort of pain will you have;
  • how much time off work will you need to take;
  • how much will it cost; and
  • how long will the effects last?

你要向外科醫生瞭解甚麼?

同意做手術之前,你應該跟你的外科醫生作詳細的討論。列出你想問的問題。問題可以包括:

  • 為什麼替你選擇這種手術;
  • 手術效果如何;
  • 手術具體步驟;
  • 在短期及長期內可能出現甚麼問題;
  • 會留下甚麼樣的傷疤,會有甚麼痛楚;
  • 你需要休多長時間病假;
  • 需要多少費用;以及
  • 效果可持續多長時間?

Seek help

Qualified nurses are available if you call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66* (Monday to Friday, between 8.00am to 8.00pm Australian Eastern Standard Time) for free:

  • Information;
  • Advice; and
  • Leaflets.

If you have difficulty speaking or understanding English you can access the Helpline through the free Telephone Interpreter Service on 13 14 50. The phone will be answered in English, so please name the language you speak and wait on the phone. You will be connected to an interpreter who speaks your language. Tell the interpreter you wish to call the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66. Wait on the phone to be connected and the interpreter will assist you to speak with a continence nurse advisor. All calls are confidential.

Visit bladderbowel.gov.au or continence.org.au/other-languages

* Calls from mobile telephones are charged at applicable rates.

尋求幫助

如果你致電國家排便節制熱線,有資質的護士會接聽你的電話1800 33 00 66* (週一至週五,澳大利亞東部標準時間8:00am—8:00pm)。

  • 信息;
  • 建議;及
  • 資料單張。

如果你在講英語或者理解上有困難,你可以透過撥打13 14 50獲取免費電話傳譯服務以接通國家排便節制熱線。電話會用英語接通,因此請說明你要講的語言並且不要掛機。你會被連接到一個講你母語的傳譯員。告知傳譯員你想要致電國家排便節制熱線,電話是1800 33 00 66。待電話接通後傳譯員會幫助你與排便節制護理顧問對話,所有的來電均保密。

請登陸:bladderbowel.gov.au或者continence.org.au/other-languages

* 用手機打出會收取相應費用。