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Overactive Bladder and Urgency

膀胱過動症和急迫感

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What is overactive bladder?

The bladder is a muscle which contracts to empty the bladder when it is full and you are ready to empty. An overactive bladder means the bladder contracts before it is full. It can sometimes contract when you are not ready. You might go to the toilet often and find it hard to hold on until you get there. At times you may leak urine on the way to the toilet.

什麼是膀胱過動症?

膀胱是一個肌肉,在膀胱脹滿而你準備排尿時它可以收縮排尿。膀胱過動症是指︰膀胱在沒脹滿之前就已收縮,有時當你還沒有準備好它就收縮。你可能要時常去廁所而且在未到達廁所前就難以忍住,有時在去廁所的途中你可能會漏尿。

What causes overactive bladder?

Poor bladder control may be due to health problems, such as:

  • stroke.
  • having an enlarged prostate gland.
  • Parkinson’s disease.

An overactive bladder can be due to poor bladder habits over a long time.

For some people the cause is unknown.

什麼原因引起膀胱過動症?

排尿控制不良可能是由於健康問題如︰

  • 中風;
  • 前列腺肥大’
  • 帕金森症。

膀胱過動症可能是由於長期的不良排尿習慣引起,對於若干人士來說病因不明。

What are normal bladder habits?

It is normal to:

  • empty your bladder when you get out of bed in the morning.
  • empty your bladder about 4 to 6 times through the day.
  • empty your bladder before you go to bed at night.

A healthy bladder holds about 1.5 to 2 cups of urine. This is equal to 300 - 400mls. Your bladder holds this much during the day. It holds more during the night, before you feel the need to pass urine.

This pattern may change in older people. Older people may make more urine at night. This means they may have to pass more urine through the night than they do in the day.

什麼是正常排尿習慣?

通常會︰

  • 早上起床時排尿;
  • 每日排尿約 4–6 次;
  • 晚上睡覺前排尿。

一個健康的膀胱能儲存約1.5∼2杯的尿液。這相當於300–400毫升。你的膀胱在白天的儲存量就這麼多,但它在夜間你覺得需要排尿前儲存量會較多。

這種模式可能在老年人身上會改變。長者可能在夜間會產生較多的尿液,意指他們夜間排尿的頻率可能會較日間高。

What is bladder training?

The aim of bladder training is to improve symptoms of overactive bladder. Bladder training teaches you how to hold more urine in your bladder without feelings of urgency. Visit your doctor, a continence nurse advisor or continence physiotherapist if you have some problems with bladder control. They could start you on a bladder training program. If you do nothing about your problem, it may get worse.

什麼是排尿訓練?

排尿訓練旨在改善膀胱過動症的症狀,教你怎樣可以增加膀胱的尿液儲存量而沒有急迫的感覺。如果你有排尿控制問題,要去看醫生、排便節制護士顧問或排便節制物理治療師。他們會為你著手安排排尿訓練計劃。如果你什麼都不做,問題可能會日益惡化。

What is in a bladder training program?

You may be asked to keep a bladder diary. You need to keep the diary for at least 3 days. It keeps track of how your bladder works through the day.

The bladder diary keeps track of:

  • the time you go to the toilet.
  • how much urine you pass each time.
  • how strong you felt the urge to empty each time.

The bladder diary may look something like this:

TimeAmount passedHow strong was the urge to go?
6.30am250mls4
8.00am150mls3
9.00am100mls3
10.20am150mls1
12.15pm100mls1
1.25pm200mls3
2.30pm200mls3

排尿訓練計劃有哪些內容?

你可能要寫排尿日記,你需要記下至少3天日記來記錄你的膀胱在白天是怎樣工作的。

膀胱日記跟進︰

  • 你去廁所的時間;
  • 你每次的排尿量;
  • 你每次去排尿的急迫感有多強。

膀胱日記看起來可能像這樣︰

時間排出量急迫感的強度是多少?
6.30早上250毫升4
8.00早上150毫升3
9.00早上100毫升3
10.20早上150毫升1
12.15下午100毫升1
1.25下午200毫升3
2.30下午200毫升3

How do I measure the amount of urine passed?

Put a container (like an ice cream container) in the toilet. Now sit on the toilet and relax with your feet on the floor. Pass urine into the container. Then tip the urine into a jug to measure it. Men may want to stand and pass urine directly into a measuring jug.

How do I measure urgency?

This chart shows how to use a number to describe the urge you felt.

0

No urgency.

I felt no need to empty.

I emptied for other reasons.

1

Mild urgency.

I could put it off as long as needed.

I had no fear of wetting myself.

2

Moderate urgency.

I could put it off for a short time.

I had no fear of wetting myself.

3

Severe urgency.

I could not put it off.

I had to rush to the toilet.

I had fear I would wet myself.

4

Urge incontinence.

I leaked before I got to the toilet.

怎樣測量尿液排出量?

上廁所時在兩腿間放一個容器(如雪糕盒)。然後坐上馬桶,輕鬆地雙腳?地,將尿液排入容器內。排完之後,將尿液倒入量杯進行測量。男性或會站著將尿液直接排入量杯內。

怎樣測量急迫感?

此圖顯示怎樣使用一個數字來描述你感受到的急迫感。

0

沒有急迫感

我覺得不需要排尿;

因為其他原因我已經排尿;

1

輕微急迫感

我可以根據需要拖延;

我並不害怕弄濕自己;

2

中度急迫感

我可以拖延一段短時間;

我並不害怕弄濕自己;

3

嚴重急迫感

我不能拖延;

我不得不衝去廁所;

我害怕會弄濕自己;

4

急迫性尿失禁

還未趕得及上廁所已經漏尿。

How do I measure leaking using a Pad Weight Test?

This test helps to work out how much urine you leak over a few days. To do this test you will need some accurate scales for weighing. You do this test by:

  1. weighing a dry pad in a plastic bag before you wear the pad,
  2. then weighing the wet pad in a plastic bag after you wear it, and
  3. taking the weight of the dry pad away from the weight of the wet pad.

This will show how much you have leaked because each gram equals one ml.

Like this:

Wet pad

400g.

Dry pad

150g.

Weight Difference

250g.

Amount leaked =

250mls.

怎樣使用護墊重量測試法 (Pad Weight Test) 來測量漏尿量?

此測試可以幫助你計算出在幾天期間的漏尿量。做這個測試你需要一些精確的秤進行稱重,方法可以通過:

  1. 在佩戴護墊之前先量放在塑膠袋內的乾護墊重量,
  2. 然後再量放在塑膠袋內使用過的濕護墊重量,最後
  3. 將濕護墊的重量減去乾護墊的重量。

這將顯示你的漏尿量,因為每一克等於一毫升。

像這樣︰

濕護墊

400克

乾護墊

150克

重量差

250克

漏尿量 =

250毫升

Who can help with your bladder training program?

A doctor, continence nurse advisor or continence physiotherapist can get the best results for you. They will work out a program to suit you.

Some of these continence health professionals may be in a private practice clinic. Others work in clinics in your local community health service. They also work in public hospital clinics. The National Continence Helpline 1800 33 00 66 can help you find your local continence clinic.

什麼人可以幫助你的排尿訓練計劃?

醫生、排便科護士顧問或排便科物理治療師可以幫助你得到最佳效果。他們會商定出一個合適你的計劃。

其中的一些排便節制健康專業人員可能在私人執業診所執業,別的則在你當地的社區健康服務診所工作,他們也在公立醫院門診工作。全國排便節制幫助熱線 (National Continence Helpline) 1800 33 00 66可以幫助你找到你當地的排便節制診所。

How long will it take?

Most bladder training programs take about 3 months. You may have regular meetings with your continence nurse advisor or continence physiotherapist. They will teach you ways to hold on for longer. This will mean you can hold more urine in your bladder.

需要多長時間?

大多數排便節制訓練計劃需要3個月左右,你可能要定時與你的排便節制護士顧問或排便節制物理療法師會面。他們會教你堅持較長時間的方式,??意味?你可以令膀胱儲存更多尿液。

Some helpful things you will learn from the program

Pelvic Floor Muscle Training

The continence physiotherapist or continence nurse advisor will teach you how to use your pelvic floor muscles. These muscles support your bladder and urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside. Strong pelvic floor muscles help to hold back the strong urge to pass urine. This will help you hold on until you reach the toilet.

Good Bladder Habits

It is normal to consume between 1.5 - 2 litres of fluid per day unless your doctor says this is not okay. This way your bladder will slowly learn to stretch to hold more urine. You need to keep track of how much you drink each day. To do this you will need to know how much your cup or mug holds. Cups can hold from 120 to 180mls whereas mugs can hold 280 to 300mls or more.

Avoid drinking fizzy drinks or drinks with caffeine. These can upset the bladder and make it harder for you to hold on. There is some caffeine in chocolate, tea and coffee. There is more caffeine in cola and sports drinks. It is best to avoid drinking these.

You will learn which drinks to choose so your bladder will not be upset.

Good Bowel Habits

You will also learn how constipation and straining to pass a bowel motion can stretch your pelvic floor muscles. Avoid constipation as this also causes poor bladder control. Eat at least 2 pieces of fruit and 5 serves of vegetables daily. Eat high fibre bread as well.

你將從計劃中學到的有用東西


骨盆底肌肉訓練

排便科物理治療師或排便科護士顧問會教你怎樣使用骨盆底肌肉。這些肌肉支撐你的膀胱及尿道。尿道是從膀胱輸送尿液到體外的管道。強健的骨盆底肌肉可以幫助克制排尿的強烈急迫感。這能幫你忍住排尿,直至去到廁所。

良好的排尿習慣

每天飲用1.5–2升液體是正常的,除非你的醫生告訴你不能這樣做。這樣你的膀胱會慢慢學著伸展開來容納較多的尿液。你需要記錄你每天喝的分量。要做到這一點,你需要知道你的茶杯或大杯子可以裝多少水。茶杯可以裝120至180毫升,而大杯子可以裝280到300毫升,甚至更多。

避免喝碳酸或含咖啡因飲料。這些飲料會影響膀胱功能並使你更難忍小便。巧克力、茶和咖啡有一些咖啡因。可樂和運動飲料有較多的咖啡因。最好是避免飲用這些飲料。

你將會瞭解到選擇哪類飲料才不會擾亂你的膀胱。

保持良好的大便習慣

您將會認識到便秘和用力排便會怎樣拉扯骨盆底肌肉。避免便秘,因為這也會導致欠佳的排尿控制。每天至少吃2個水果和5份蔬菜並多吃高纖維的麵包。

Will there be setbacks?

Do not be worried by small day to day changes in your bladder control. These are normal. Anyone on a bladder training program can have setbacks, when your symptoms may seem worse. This may happen when:

  • you have a bladder infection (see your doctor right away).
  • you are tired or run down.
  • you are worried or stressed.
  • the weather is wet, windy or cold.
  • you are ill (such as a cold or the flu).
  • you are a menstruating woman.

If set-backs do happen, do not lose heart. Stay positive and keep trying.

訓練期間是否會遇到挫折?

不要擔心排尿控制訓練中每日的輕微變化,出現這些變化是正常的。任何實行排尿訓練計劃的人都可能會遇到挫折,有時你的症狀看來似乎在惡化, 可能導致症狀惡化的情況包括:

  • 膀胱感染(馬上見你的醫生);
  • 疲勞或精疲力竭;
  • 憂慮或緊張;
  • 天氣潮濕,刮風或寒冷;
  • 生病(如感冒或流感);
  • 月經期間婦女。

如果真的遇到挫折也不要灰心。要保持樂觀並堅持嘗試。

Seek help

You are not alone. Poor bladder and bowel control can be cured or better managed with the right treatment. If you do nothing, it might get worse.

Phone expert advisors on the National Continence Helpline for free:

  • advice;
  • resources; and
  • information about local services

1800 33 00 66 *

(8am - 8pm Monday to Friday AEST)

To arrange for an interpreter through the Telephone Interpreter Service (TIS), phone 13 14 50 Monday to Friday and ask for the National Continence Helpline. Information in other languages is also available from continence.org.au/other-languages

For more information:

  • continence.org.au
  • pelvicfloorfirst.org.au
  • bladderbowel.gov.au

* Calls from mobiles are charged at applicable rates.

尋求幫助

你並不孤單。加以正確的治療,排尿和排便控制不良可以治愈或處理得更好。如果你置之不理,問題可能會日益惡化。

致電National Continence Helpline(國家排便節制熱線)專家顧問索取免費︰

  • 建議;
  • ?料?;及
  • 關於當地服務的資訊

熱線電話︰1800 33 00 66 *

(週一至週五,澳洲東部標準時間早上8點–晚上8點)

要安排電話傳譯員,請致電TIS(電話傳譯服務)13 14 50週一至週五,並要求接通National Continence Helpline(國家排便節制熱線)。獲取其他語言譯文的資訊,請瀏覽continence.org.au/other-languages

更多詳情︰

  • continence.org.au  排便節制網站
  • pelvicfloorfirst.org.au  骨盆底肌肉網站
  • bladderbowel.gov.au  排便失禁網站

* 用手機打出的電話會收取相應費用。